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who came up with grouping options to accommodate differentiation
human resources- his research found basic conflict between human personality and the way organizations are typically structured and managed. This conflict worsens as a person moves down the hierarchy where jobs are mechanized.
coined the term "group dynamics" and he believed it was easier to change a group than it would be to change an individual
2 critical activities teams are involved in:
1. performing tasks
2. making decisions
who came up with 3 Basic Team characteristics
teams have a distinct recognizable task that members identify with.
members with a variety of skills related to the task.
members have digression over team related issues.
who is behind the traditional approach to motivation
Focused on improving the productivity of worker
who is behind the Human Relations Approach - the social person -the social aspects of work are as important to motivation as money
who is behind Human Resource Approach belief in peoples ability to work and be productive. equal parts of social person and economics person.
3 main parts of the contemporary approach of motivation
A. Content theories- emphasize needs motivate ppl
B Process Theories - attempt to explain how people choose behaviors to meet their needs.
C. Reinforcement Theories- anything that causes a given behavior to be repeated or inhibited.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, ERG theory, herzberg 2 factory, and acquired needs are all under what theory and approach of motivation?
Contemporary approach, content theory
who associated with ERG Theory , Existence needs, Relatedness (social), Growth (esteem). Move up and down category of needs-
who is behind the 2 factor theory hygiene factors and motivators
who is behind Acquired needs theory- certain needs ppl acquire during their life that they are not born with.
1. Need for achievement - desire to accomplish something difficult, to surpass something difficult
2. Need for affiliation- social needs. desire to have close relationships.
3. need for power- the desire to control others and to have authority over others.
Equity and expectency theory are under what theory and approach of motivation?
process theory, contemporary approach
who is behind equity theory- focus is on the output input ratio
who is behind expectancy theory
2 philosophical and practical barriers to team concepts
1. teams take a long time to yield substantial benefit
2. a new management paradigm is needed
ASA theory by
proposes that the personality of a team is largely the product of the personality of its members.
people with similar personalities tend to be attracted to the team then selected by the team for membership. while other personality types leave the team.
the basic building blocks of the task and authority relationship
focuses on jobs as the agents that are grouped into functions and divisions.
coordinates activities and people through jobs.
Alternative Approaches to Job Design
who is behind the Interdisciplinary approach, does not emphasize the social aspects of the work environment
michael campion and paul thayer.
draws from industrial psychology and results in greater job satisfaction and higher motivation
concerned with the amount of physical exertion required by the job.
based on ergonomics. - an interdisciplinary approach to designing machines and systems to fit the human body.
perceptual / motor approach
job enrichment based on what theory
herzbergs 2 factor theory
- higher level needs and or motivators- achievement, recognition, growth and responsibility
herzbergs 2 factory theory
has a prescriptive nature.
job characteristics model
job characteristics model by who
greg oldham and Richard hackman
clear direction and goals
task suited for teamwork
supportive organizational environment
Hackmans factors for a successful team
Team design is the result of 5 basic inputs
1. Task application
2. Technology & interdependence
3. Team self leadership
4. Team goals
5. Team composition
developing suggestions, making decision, and providing recommendations. have non specialized duties and have little if any inner organizational cooperations.
given the task of producing the goods or services the work results in a homogenous work product. and they require close coordination with other units
tasks related to specialized ventures. they form to complete a specific set of duties and disband when the project is completed. and have little coordination with other units
comes together for a BRIEF performance of highly specialized tasks and they must coordinate their actions with other units.
who classifies technology in 3 ways:
1. unit technology- small batch production, customized products
2. mass technology- large batch production, the production of non customized goods.
3. process production technology- continuous flow production.
who is behind the model of task interdependence
james d thompson
what produces a positive effect from individual goals because members put forth more effort to attain their goals, thus accomplishing the team goal.
what finds individual goals producing negative effects because it can result in members focusing on their own goals at the expense of the team goal.
who is behind the traditional approach to motivation
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