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68 terms

HUMN 101 Final Exam

STUDY
PLAY
You try three oranges out of a bag of ten and all three are sour. You conclude, therefore, that the rest of the oranges are also sour. You have just reasoned inductively.
True
The name Galileo is best associated with what period?
1550-1770
During the modern age, the "new science" has developed from a method of scientific inquiry into an entire philosophy of life.
True
European culture in the 17th century in Europe is best characterized by which phrase?
Period of Conflict
What does the phrase "idols of the marketplace" refer to?
Ambiguities of Language
The textbook suggests that the seventeenth-century is one of the easier centuries for us to understand and analyze.
False
What does the phrase "idols of the cave" refer to?
Individual Biases
The Scientific Revolution helped bring about a new way of looking at the world in purely material terms.
True
The word "empiricism" refers to knowledge gained from authority and tradition.
False
Which of the following is not associated with "the century of genius"?
Da Vinci
According to the textbook, which Enlightenment figure had the greatest influence on how the institutions of modern western culture have developed?
Rousseau
The Enlightenment philosophers had a high regard for the truth of religion.
False
The Enlightenment philosophers believed that mankind was capable of social perfection.
True
The terms "Age of Reason" and "neoclassical period" both refer to the culture of the 18th century.
True
The impact of the Enlightenment was largely confined to European culture and had little impact on the development of American culture.
False
Voltaire's philosophy is expressed by his most famous quote, namely that "Man is born free.
False
Modern political liberalism shares its underlying view of man with the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
True
Voltaire was a great French writer and intellectual who defended Christianity against the attacks of skeptics and rationalists.
False
It was commonly believed by the 18th-century philosophers that tradition is the foundation of truth.
False
Rousseau is best known for his theories on which subjects?
politics, education, society
Which of the following is not discussed in the text as an example of a "romantic hero"?
Louix XIV
Romanticism in the arts can be described as a triumph of "reason" over "passion."
False
In many ways, the modern environmental movement can be traced back to the romantic veneration of nature.
True
Wordsworth's sonnet, "The World Is Too Much with Us," best illustrates which concept?
the force of Nature on the Romantic imagination
Which of the following is presented in Chapter 23 as an important background to the emphasis on "realism" and "materialism" in nineteenth-century culture?
Industrialization
Realism in nineteenth-century art can be understood as a reaction to what movement?
Romanticism
Realism in nineteenth-century art can be understood as a reaction to what movement?
the output of factories
Jean-Francois Millet
Gustave Courbet
Charles Darwin
Karl Marx
Leo Tolstoy
Matthew Arnold
Gustave Flaubert
Charles Dickens
By the end of the nineteenth century, materialism and secularism had produced a widespread pessimism about the future of western culture.
False
This word describes the new spirit of questioning that emerged in the early modern age.
Skepticism
This novel explores the boundaries of reality and illusion and has been called the "first modern novel."
Don Quixote
Known as the "father of modern philosophy," he claimed that the only thing he was certain of was his own ability to think.
Descartes
This Spanish painter produced on of the greatest masterpieces of western art, a skeptical exploration of the problem of perception.
Velazques
In the modern western wold, this has replaced the medieval church as the source of authority.
Science
Raw, unprocessed facts, number, or signals.
Data
Data that is interpreted and "processed" into patterns.
Information
When information is turned into instructions, it is called this.
Knowledge
This term describes the point where information is projected to surpass human intelligence.
Singularity
This process which is often used to describe the contemporary age, has been underway for many centuries.
Globalization
The beginning of the modern era of globalization began with this new technology.
Satellite
This is recognized as the first truly "global event."
Moon Landing in 1969
This is known as the first webcan
Trojan Room Coffee Pot
We traced the global journey of this product in class.
T-Shirt
This term refers to the types of organizations that people choose to join.
Voluntary Associations
There are over 51,000 of these in London.
Cameras
We referred in class to this North African tribe when discussing different way of viewing privacy.
Sawahari
We used this example from contemporary American travel to illustrate how privacy is balance with other issues.
TSA
This is the title of the painting from 1565 that illustrated for us a traditional view of community.
"Hunters in the Snow" by Brueghel
The Renaissance author spoke of man as "the maker and molder of himself."
Mirandola
This painting led to much discussion and disagreement after Exam 2, about the question of pregnancy.
The Arnolfini Marriage Portrait
This is the stable "fertility rate" at which population replaces itself from generation to generation.
2.1
These two writers, who had very different views of the future, both died on the same day as John F. Kennedy.
Aldous Huxley and C.S. Lewis
The new director of engineering at Google, this man plans on downloading his brain and living forever.
Ray Kurzweil
What does it mean to say that skepticism has driven progress in the modern western world?
The skeptical spirit is one of the most significant intellectual developments of the modern western world.
What are the positive aspects of a skeptical mind?
Skepticism is necessary for science. A healthy skepticism led Copernicus. Skepticism is necessary for justice. The modern legal system is based on doubt.
What are the negative aspects of a skeptical mind?
Skepticism can lead to the view that nothing can be known for certain and that there is no absolute truth. Everything become relative. Both individuals and society lose a sure foundation for life.
Early modern examples of skepticism
Literature- Cervantes (1547-1616) Don Quixote
Art- Velazques (1598-1660) Las Meninas, 1656
Science- Rembrandt (1547-1616) documents the new spirit of inquiry
Philosophy- Descartes (1596-1650) the "father of modern skepticism" Congito, ergo sun- I think, therefore I am
Politics- out of this age would come a profound skepticism about the "divine rights" of kings.
DIKW Pyramid
Wisdom
Knowledge
Information
Data
Data
-often described as symbols or signals
-Data is merely "raw facts" unprocessed
-has no meaning
Example:a physical, atomic description
Information
-data processed into connections that give it meaning
-information is filtered and organized
-information is the "meaning" we extract from data as we place it in context
Example:flour, yeast, water, salt
Knowledge
-knowledge is usually described as information put into action, information turned into instructions
-the emphasis is placed on utility
Example:the recipe to make bread
Wisdom
-wisdom adds value to the hierarchy, and therefore requires the quality of "judgement"
Example:Bread is best when it's made fresh
The Singularity
the point at which AI (artificial intelligence) will surpass human intelligence (2045)
How did western culture go from the humanism of the Renaissance to the transhumanist vision of the future?
Renaissance Humanism-man as the "maker and molder of himself"
Enlightenment (18th Century)-man as a complex, rational "machine"
19th Century (Darwin)-man as a self-evolving organism
21st Century transhumanism- man as a self-created, "immortal" cyborg
How has the concept of community changed over the past 500 years?
Voluntary Association