68 terms

HUMN 101 Final Exam

You try three oranges out of a bag of ten and all three are sour. You conclude, therefore, that the rest of the oranges are also sour. You have just reasoned inductively.
The name Galileo is best associated with what period?
During the modern age, the "new science" has developed from a method of scientific inquiry into an entire philosophy of life.
European culture in the 17th century in Europe is best characterized by which phrase?
Period of Conflict
What does the phrase "idols of the marketplace" refer to?
Ambiguities of Language
The textbook suggests that the seventeenth-century is one of the easier centuries for us to understand and analyze.
What does the phrase "idols of the cave" refer to?
Individual Biases
The Scientific Revolution helped bring about a new way of looking at the world in purely material terms.
The word "empiricism" refers to knowledge gained from authority and tradition.
Which of the following is not associated with "the century of genius"?
Da Vinci
According to the textbook, which Enlightenment figure had the greatest influence on how the institutions of modern western culture have developed?
The Enlightenment philosophers had a high regard for the truth of religion.
The Enlightenment philosophers believed that mankind was capable of social perfection.
The terms "Age of Reason" and "neoclassical period" both refer to the culture of the 18th century.
The impact of the Enlightenment was largely confined to European culture and had little impact on the development of American culture.
Voltaire's philosophy is expressed by his most famous quote, namely that "Man is born free.
Modern political liberalism shares its underlying view of man with the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Voltaire was a great French writer and intellectual who defended Christianity against the attacks of skeptics and rationalists.
It was commonly believed by the 18th-century philosophers that tradition is the foundation of truth.
Rousseau is best known for his theories on which subjects?
politics, education, society
Which of the following is not discussed in the text as an example of a "romantic hero"?
Louix XIV
Romanticism in the arts can be described as a triumph of "reason" over "passion."
In many ways, the modern environmental movement can be traced back to the romantic veneration of nature.
Wordsworth's sonnet, "The World Is Too Much with Us," best illustrates which concept?
the force of Nature on the Romantic imagination
Which of the following is presented in Chapter 23 as an important background to the emphasis on "realism" and "materialism" in nineteenth-century culture?
Realism in nineteenth-century art can be understood as a reaction to what movement?
Realism in nineteenth-century art can be understood as a reaction to what movement?
the output of factories
Jean-Francois Millet
Gustave Courbet
Charles Darwin
Karl Marx
Leo Tolstoy
Matthew Arnold
Gustave Flaubert
Charles Dickens
By the end of the nineteenth century, materialism and secularism had produced a widespread pessimism about the future of western culture.
This word describes the new spirit of questioning that emerged in the early modern age.
This novel explores the boundaries of reality and illusion and has been called the "first modern novel."
Don Quixote
Known as the "father of modern philosophy," he claimed that the only thing he was certain of was his own ability to think.
This Spanish painter produced on of the greatest masterpieces of western art, a skeptical exploration of the problem of perception.
In the modern western wold, this has replaced the medieval church as the source of authority.
Raw, unprocessed facts, number, or signals.
Data that is interpreted and "processed" into patterns.
When information is turned into instructions, it is called this.
This term describes the point where information is projected to surpass human intelligence.
This process which is often used to describe the contemporary age, has been underway for many centuries.
The beginning of the modern era of globalization began with this new technology.
This is recognized as the first truly "global event."
Moon Landing in 1969
This is known as the first webcan
Trojan Room Coffee Pot
We traced the global journey of this product in class.
This term refers to the types of organizations that people choose to join.
Voluntary Associations
There are over 51,000 of these in London.
We referred in class to this North African tribe when discussing different way of viewing privacy.
We used this example from contemporary American travel to illustrate how privacy is balance with other issues.
This is the title of the painting from 1565 that illustrated for us a traditional view of community.
"Hunters in the Snow" by Brueghel
The Renaissance author spoke of man as "the maker and molder of himself."
This painting led to much discussion and disagreement after Exam 2, about the question of pregnancy.
The Arnolfini Marriage Portrait
This is the stable "fertility rate" at which population replaces itself from generation to generation.
These two writers, who had very different views of the future, both died on the same day as John F. Kennedy.
Aldous Huxley and C.S. Lewis
The new director of engineering at Google, this man plans on downloading his brain and living forever.
Ray Kurzweil
What does it mean to say that skepticism has driven progress in the modern western world?
The skeptical spirit is one of the most significant intellectual developments of the modern western world.
What are the positive aspects of a skeptical mind?
Skepticism is necessary for science. A healthy skepticism led Copernicus. Skepticism is necessary for justice. The modern legal system is based on doubt.
What are the negative aspects of a skeptical mind?
Skepticism can lead to the view that nothing can be known for certain and that there is no absolute truth. Everything become relative. Both individuals and society lose a sure foundation for life.
Early modern examples of skepticism
Literature- Cervantes (1547-1616) Don Quixote
Art- Velazques (1598-1660) Las Meninas, 1656
Science- Rembrandt (1547-1616) documents the new spirit of inquiry
Philosophy- Descartes (1596-1650) the "father of modern skepticism" Congito, ergo sun- I think, therefore I am
Politics- out of this age would come a profound skepticism about the "divine rights" of kings.
DIKW Pyramid
-often described as symbols or signals
-Data is merely "raw facts" unprocessed
-has no meaning
Example:a physical, atomic description
-data processed into connections that give it meaning
-information is filtered and organized
-information is the "meaning" we extract from data as we place it in context
Example:flour, yeast, water, salt
-knowledge is usually described as information put into action, information turned into instructions
-the emphasis is placed on utility
Example:the recipe to make bread
-wisdom adds value to the hierarchy, and therefore requires the quality of "judgement"
Example:Bread is best when it's made fresh
The Singularity
the point at which AI (artificial intelligence) will surpass human intelligence (2045)
How did western culture go from the humanism of the Renaissance to the transhumanist vision of the future?
Renaissance Humanism-man as the "maker and molder of himself"
Enlightenment (18th Century)-man as a complex, rational "machine"
19th Century (Darwin)-man as a self-evolving organism
21st Century transhumanism- man as a self-created, "immortal" cyborg
How has the concept of community changed over the past 500 years?
Voluntary Association