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10.3 - Immigration, Urbanization and Reform (The Progressives)
Terms in this set (44)
Patrons of Husbandry/Grange
Organization of farmers in the late 1800s who, suffering from high shipping costs and debt, advocated for government regulation or railroad rates and the free coinage of silver.
Political party formed in the late 1800s out of the Grange Movement. They advocated for the free coinage of silver, a graduated income tax and government regulation of business. Their leader was William Jennings Bryan. Eventually their members mostly joined the Democratic Party.
Free Coinage of Silver
Objective of the Populist Party. They wanted inflation to ease loan repayments and asked the government to go off the gold standard. This was the topic of William Jennings Bryan's famous "Cross of Gold" speech.
Graduated Income Tax
An income tax system in which wealthy individuals pay a higher percentage of their income in taxes than lower class individuals.
When citizens can gather signatures and force their legislature to vote on an issue.
When citizens can gather signatures and have a proposed law put on a ballot so everyone can vote. This was a way to enact legislation that might otherwise have been prevented by business interests who could pay off elected officials.
When citizens can gather signatures and force a vote to remove an elected official. This was enacted to curb corruption in government.
Panic of 1893
Financial crisis in the 1893.
The leader of a group of Populist farmers who marched to Washington, DC in 1894 demanding reform.
A group of Populist farmers who marched to Washington, DC in 1894 demanding reform.
William Jennings Bryan
Populist, Progressive, and later democratic leader who championed the rights of farmers. His "Cross of Gold" speech catapulted him to national fame. He ran four times for president but never won.
Cross of Gold Speech
1896 speech by William Jennings Bryan at the Democratic National convention arguing for the free coinage of silver.
Republican President first elected in 1896. He defeated William Jennings Bryan. Reelected in 1900, he led the nation through the Spanish-American War, but was assassinated.
Short campaign speeches given from the back of a train car as it stopped in small towns. They were a way spreading a candidate's message in the days before radio, television or the internet.
Groups of people at the turn of the century interested in making change in society, business and government. They were often urban, northeastern, educated, middle class, and protestant.
A minor political party formed in 1912 to champion progressive issues.
A government policy toward business that favored low taxes and regulation.
An idea common at the turn of the century applying the survival of the fittest concept to human experiences. It argued that people and nations that succeed did so because they were inherently superior to those who lost or were less successful.
A way of approaching problems developed by William James at the turn of the century. It advocated that people did not need to accept life as it was, but could work for change.
Social Gospel Movement
A movement at the turn of the century based on the belief that helping the poor was a Christian virtue. Members of the movement built settlement houses, formed the YMCA and YWCA and founded the Salvation Army.
Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA)
Organization founded by members of the Social Gospel Movement to give young men a place to improve physical fitness and moral character.
Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA)
Organization founded by members of the Social Gospel Movement to give young women a place to improve physical fitness and moral character.
Religious group founded at the turn of the century which tried to find a balance between traditional Christian teaching and new discoveries in science and technology.
British service organization that was transplanted to America as part of the Social Gospel Movement. They serve the needy by providing shelters for the homeless and soup kitchens.
A place in large cities where new immigrants could come to learn English, job skills, and find childcare while they worked. The most famous was Hull House in Chicago.
The most famous settlement house. It was founded by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889.
Founder of the Settlement House movement.
Third Great Awakening
Term for the general increase in religious practice at the turn of the century. It included the Social Gospel Movement an establishment of organizations such as the Salvation Army, YMCA, YWCA, and Christian Science Church.
National Child Labor Committee (NCLC)
Government organization established in 1904 and charged with finding ways to reduce child labor.
Law passed in 1916 prohibiting the shipment of products across state lines created with child labor. It was struck down as unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in Hammer v. Dagenhart in 1918. It was replaced by the Fair Labor Standards Act.
Fair Labor Standards Act
Law passed in 1938 protecting workers, and effectively ending child labor in America.
Permission granted from a school for a teenager to work. It is one of the effects of the Fair Labor Standards Act and is designed to protect young Americans from the abuses of child labor.
Advocate for education reform at the turn of the century. He championed the development of normal schools, which were colleges that prepared future teachers.
A form of college that would train future teachers. They were especially promoted by John Dewey at the turn of the century.
Free public schools for students after 8th grade. They first became common around the turn of the century.
Robert La Follette
Progressive governor of Wisconsin. He led the way in promoting many reforms in state government.
Constitutional amendment that made a federal income tax legal.
Constitutional amendment that provided for the direct election of senators.
A legislative body for a city. Sometimes called a council, this form of government was a progressive reform and limited the influence of corrupt political machines by allowing voters to select city leaders.
A professional selected by a city government who executes policy. This was a progressive reform and sought to separate the decision to spend public money from the awarding of contracts, thus reducing corruption.
Environmentalist at the turn of the century who became friends with President Theodore Roosevelt and founded the Sierra Club.
Environmental organization formed in 1892 by John Muir.
Organization for boys founded in Britain and brought to America at the turn of the century to promote citizenship and stewardship of the environment.
Organization for girls founded in Britain and brought to America at the turn of the century to promote citizenship and stewardship of the environment.
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