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For Dr. Hendersons Class

A drop in basal metabolic rate is most likely to result from

a semistarvation diet

Compared with past years, people in developed countries today are consuming ________ food and engaging in ________ physical activity.

more; less

The polygraph measures the changes in ________ that accompany emotion.

heart rate

When Laura acts happy, she experiences increased feelings of cheerfulness. This best illustrates

the behavior feedback effect

The suggestion that we share a friend's feelings of joy if we smile with him or her best illustrates the logic of the

James-Lange theory

Which of the following emotional reactions is most likely to precede any conscious thinking?


It is characteristic of robins to build nests. This is an example of

an instinct

When encouraged to eat as much as they want, people tend to eat less if the foods are offered in smaller rather than larger portion sizes. This illustrates

unit bias

North Americans are more likely than Japanese citizens to display their feelings openly. This cultural difference best reflects the American culture's greater emphasis on


Which theory most clearly emphasizes the importance of homeostasis in motivation?

drive-reduction theory

When we are too hot, we perspire in order to lower our body temperature and thereby

maintain homeostasis

The influence of personal and cultural experience on our wants and desires can most clearly be seen in the influence of ________ on motivation.


A desire to pursue high standards and significant accomplishments is indicative of

achievement motivation

Which of the following suggests that the experience of emotion results from an awareness of our own physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event?

James-Lange thoery

People are more vulnerable to obesity if they experience

sleep deprivation

Which of the following is true of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory?

It is an empirically derived test

Our tendency to judge various stimuli relative to those we have previously experienced is called

the adaptation-level phenomenon

Ferdinand was assigned to a small dormitory room with two other freshman roommates. As a result, he feels he has little control over his environment. His body is most likely to respond with

elevated blood pressure

Martin is optimistic, impulsive, excitable, and restless. In terms of the Eysencks' basic personality dimensions, he would be classified as


The pleasure principle is to the ________ as the reality principle is to the ________.

id; ego

A sense of satisfaction with life is known as

subjective well-being

When experimenters have implanted tumor cells into rodents, those exposed to ________ were more prone to cancer.

inescapable shocks

The belief that some distressing physical symptoms made no neurological sense contributed most directly to

Freud's interest in unconscious conflicts

In some ways, each of us is just like everyone else. This fact enables astrologers to effectively make use of a technique known as

the stock spiel

According to Freud, the most important erogenous zone during earliest infancy consists of the


The perception that one can strongly influence the outcome and destiny of one's own life exemplifies

an internal locus of control

Coping with anxiety by retreating to behavior patterns characteristic of a more infantile stage of development is called


Compared with those who perceive an external locus of control, people who perceive an internal locus of control are

likely to be academically successful

Freud referred to the remembered story line of a dream as its

manifest content

Researchers have found that certain factors are related to happiness. One of these is that happy people tend to

have a satisfying marriage or close friendship

One option for dealing with stress, which is more common among women than men, is

the tend-to-befriend response

As discussed in lecture, "A little bit of stress is good" according to the ____

Optimum Arousal Theory

As presented in lecture, one of the major criticisms with the Psychoanalytic Theory is that it is hard to find/establish ________

the unconsious

As presented in lecture, if Dr Henderson says, "Wow, she must be really angry with me", when in fact Dr Henderson is actually angry with her, this is an example of the defense mechanism called __________


As discussed in lecture, a physiologically aroused state (ie fight or flight) is associated with the ______

sympathetic nervous system

As presented in lecture, when we are in an aroused state our blood flow______ and our pupils___________

increases, dilate

As mentioned in lecture, according to Maslow,_______________ is the optimal objective of human potential


Many North American parents want to pick names for their children that sound unique or are spelled in an unusual way. This desire best illustrates one of the consequences of


Which theory would be most threatened by evidence that highly similar patterns of physiological activity are associated with uniquely different emotional states?

James-Lange theory

The characteristic that most clearly contributes to the disease vulnerability of Type A personalities is their feelings of


Which of the following refers to a physiological state that usually triggers a state of motivational arousal?


The image of an iceberg is frequently used to illustrate ________ idea of the mind's structure


Freud believed that our repressed impulses express themselves in

all of these forms

The level of arousal typically associated with peak performance tends to be

higher on well-learned tasks

People consume more ice cream when scooping it with a big scoop rather than a small one. This best illustrates

unit bias

A stressor is a(n)

environmental event that threatens or challenges us

Social roles are especially likely to be central to people's self-identity in ________ cultures.


In one study, polygraph experts interpreted the polygraph data of 100 people who had been suspects in crimes of theft. Had the polygraph experts been the judges of guilt or innocence

more than one-third of the truly innocent would have been declared guilty

The concept of relative deprivation refers to the perception that

one is worse off than those with whom one compares oneself

According to Carl Rogers, people nurture our growth by being genuine, accepting, and


Several neural areas within the ________ regulate the extent to which we are motivated to eat.


Being sociable and fun-loving is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of


Which of the following statements would most likely appear on a lie scale?

"I never disliked anyone."

One would not observe unusually high rates of divorce in cultures that promote


In most developing societies today (as in Europe in earlier centuries), obesity is a sign of

high social status

Although inflammation helps fight infections, persistent inflammation heightens the risk of

all of these problems

The dramatic increase in reported cases of dissociative identity disorder since the 1960s most strongly suggests that symptoms of this disorder involve

role playing

Rats come to fear locations paired with electric shock. This best illustrates

classical conditioning

Feelings of worthlessness are most likely to be associated with

major depressive disorder

Compared with those who do not experience a disorder, those who abuse alcohol have a ________ risk of committing suicide. Compared with the general population, those who have been depressed have a ________ risk of committing suicide.

higher; higher

Evidence that dissociative identity disorder is NOT simply a product of conscious role playing is most clearly provided by the

distinct brain an body states associated with differing personalities

Mania is most likely to be characterized by feelings of


Norby, an 18-year-old first-year university student, has missed almost all his classes during the past month. He spends most of his time in his bedroom, frequently not even bothering to get dressed or eat meals. He thinks his whole life has been a failure and blames himself for being a social misfit. Norby is most likely suffering from

major depressive disorder

A psychotherapist is most likely to use the DSM-IV-TR in order to ________ various psychological disorders.


A therapist claims that Luke's irrational fear of snakes results from repressed childhood feelings of hostility toward his own father. The therapist's interpretation reflects a ________ perspective.


Stressful life events like the loss of a job are most likely to increase one's risk of


If research indicated that phobias result from a chemical imbalance in the central nervous system, this would most clearly give added credibility to

the medical model

During the 1940s and 1950s, lobotomies were most likely to be performed on psychologically disordered patients who were

uncontrollably violent

Tardive dyskinesia is often associated with long-term use of drugs that occupy certain ________ receptor sites.


D-cycloserine helps relieve the symptoms of

obsessive-compulsive disorder

Jonathan is afraid to ask a girl for a date, so his therapist instructs him to relax and simply imagine he is reaching for a telephone and then calling a potential date. The therapist's technique best illustrates the process of

systematic desensitization

Dylan is a second-year undergraduate who feels so incompetent that he believes his life is worthless and hopeless. Dylan would profit the most from

Beck's cognitive therapy

Which form of therapy has most directly contributed to the sharp reduction in the number of residents in U.S. mental hospitals?

drug therapy

Clients often stay in touch with their psychotherapists only if satisfied with the treatment they received. This helps us understand why therapists

tend to overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy

Gina is so fearful of taking tests for college courses that she experiences mild anxiety when registering for a course, intense anxiety when studying for a test, and extreme anxiety when answering actual test questions. Her greatest fear, however, is experienced while waiting for a professor to hand out tests. During the process of systematically desensitizing her test anxiety, the therapist is likely to ask Gina first to imagine

registering for a college course

Which form of therapy is most likely to be criticized for offering interpretations that cannot be proven or disproven?


Mr. Choi's therapist wants to help him become aware of his conflicting childhood feelings of love and hate for his parents. The therapist's goal best reflects a primary aim of


Many professionals outside the field of psychology are prepared to offer psychotherapy in the process of completing a graduate program in

social work

Psychoanalysts are most likely to view patient transference as

a helpful aid to the process of therapy

Systematic desensitization is based on the idea that ________ facilitates the elimination of fear.


Explicit associations are typically ________, whereas implicit associations are often ________.

conscious; unconscious

Conformity is best described as

adjusting one's behavior or thinking toward a group standard.

Arturo believes that most young women from California are extremely good-looking and that extremely good-looking women are usually selfish and egotistical. His beliefs are examples of


Studies of role playing most directly highlight the effects of

action on attitudes

Job applicants are interviewed by either friendly or unfriendly employers who sit either very close to or at a normal distance from the applicants. Research suggests that applicants will like best the friendly employers who sit at a ________ distance and will like least the unfriendly employers who sit at a ________ distance.

very close; very close

One aggression-replacement program has brought down re-arrest rates of juvenile offenders by

encouraging them to engage in more thoughtful moral reasoning

The distorted perceptions that enemies often have of each other are called mirror-image perceptions because they are


The fundamental attribution error is most likely to lead observers to conclude that unemployed people

are irresponsible and unmotivated

The just-world phenomenon often leads people to

believe that victims of misfortune deserve to suffer

Parents who discipline their children with beatings are often teaching aggression through the process of


Blindfolded people were observed to clap louder when they thought they were clapping alone than when they thought they were clapping with others. This best illustrates

social loafing

As passionate love matures into a calm and steady companionate love, the bonding of two partners is most likely to be facilitated by


Mood linkage refers to

sharing the moods of those around us

Groupthink can be prevented by a leader who

invites outside experts to critique a group's developing plans

Cognitive dissonance theory is most helpful for understanding

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon

Compared with women 40 years ago, American women today are more likely to marry for the sake of


A 16-year-old boy shoots a neighbor for no apparent reason. This vivid example strongly influences people's judgments of all teen boys because people

estimate the frequency of group characteristics in terms of how memorable those characteristics are

In the last 70 years, Americans have expressed

increasing readiness to vote for a qualified female presidential candidate

The mere exposure effect most directly contributes to the positive relationship between ________ and liking.


Two social norms that influence altruistic behavior are

reciprocity and social-responsibility

Bullying younger children earns Diego the attention and respect of many classmates. As a result, his bullying behavior increases. This most clearly suggests that his aggression is a(n)

learned response

Alex feels so hopeless and depressed that he has recently thought about taking his own life. The drug most likely to prove beneficial to him is


In which operant conditioning procedure are positive reinforcers given for desired behaviors?

a token economy

Connie is a 20-year-old who is stressed by the financial challenges and heavy workload associated with being a full-time college student. Which of the following would most likely help her to avoid or minimize episodes of depression?

therapeutic lifestyle change

Influencing patients by therapeutically controlling the consequences of their actions illustrates an application of

operant conditioning

The best psychotherapy outcome studies are randomized clinical trials comparing treatment groups with ________ groups.


Which of the following is considered to be the most nondirective form of therapy?

client-centered therapy

Dr. Volz is a researcher who wants to distinguish between the direct effects of a new antianxiety medication and effects arising from expectations of the drug's effectiveness. Dr. Volz is most likely to use a method known as

double-blind procedure

Systematic desensitization involves the use of

progressive relaxation

The practice of ________ is based on the application of operant conditioning principles.

behavior modification

Which drug enhances the benefits of exposure therapy and helps relieve the symptoms of PTSD and OCD?


Panic attacks are most closely associated with

anxiety disorders

To treat nail biting, one can paint a patient's fingernails with a nasty-tasting nail polish. This procedure best illustrates

aversive conditioning

If therapy clients repeatedly imbibe an alcoholic drink mixed with a nausea-producing drug, an alcoholic drink without the drug is likely to become a(n) ________ for feelings of nausea.


Which of the following procedures has typically resulted in patients becoming permanently lethargic?

a lobotomy

Chiara, a 41-year-old, is of average height but weighs only 80 pounds. She has lost 30 pounds over the last six months by eating very little and running five miles a day. She is determined not to become overweight and ignores her parents' suggestion that she should eat well-balanced meals. Chiara suffers from

anorexia nervosa

As presented in lecture cognitive-behavioral therapy focuses on the thought/behavior cycle and that cycle


"A great way to restart the clock was to shock the body" this example was given by Dr Henderson during lecture for _______

Electroconvulsive Therapy

As presented in lecture, the goal of therapy is to reduce or eliminate_________behavior


As discussed in lecture Dr Henderson stated that _____ is used as a last resort today for dealing with psychological problems


As presented in lectured, the ______ is the main focus of a psychodynamic therapies

unconscious mind

As discussed in lecture, a token economy is where tokens are exchanged for __________awards


As presented in lecture and the text, a _________ has the ability to prescribe medication

Psychiatrist (MD)

As discussed in lecture, therapy does not work unless _____

the patient wants it to work

As presented in lecture, a medication such as _______ would most likely be prescribed for an individual suffering from bipolar disorder


As discussed in lecture, the neurotransmitter _________ is strongly linked to depression


In lecture, Dr Henderson showed a video of the Milgram's experiment, in the video what was the teacher doing to the learner?

Administering a shock

According to Dr Henderson, we are more likely to assist someone who has ___________ to us.


As discussed in lecture, what amount has been found to have the greatest impact on people when it comes to conformity?

3 or more

As provided in lecture, ___________ is how we feel about what we know about ourselves.


As discussed in lecture, _________ is doing something for the benefit of others with no expectation in return


As presented in lecture the idea that bad things happen only to other people is an example of the _________ error.


As discussed in lecture, Milgram's study on obedience was inspired by the atrocities of _______.

World War II

In lecture, Dr Henderson showed a picture that states "If its good its Mister Coffee, if its bad its me?" this is an example of ________.

fundamental attribution error

As discussed in lecture, if your face is more ____________ it will be rated more beautiful than others that are not.


In lecture, Dr Henderson stated that _____________ is when an individual withholds information from a person based on their snap judgments of that person.


People tend to prefer a(n) ________ image of themselves, while their friends prefer a ________ version of them.

mirror; actual

On which of the following tasks would the presence of observers be LEAST likely to lead to better and faster performance?

solving a crossword puzzle

Rhonda has just learned that her neighbor Patricia was involved in an automobile accident at a nearby intersection. The tendency to make the fundamental attribution error may lead Rhonda to conclude

"Patricia's recklessness has finally gotten her into trouble."

Portrayals of women as initially fleeing but subsequently enjoying coercive sexual encounters illustrate what is known as

the rape myth

The value of social conformity is most likely to be emphasized in


We are likely to prefer as friends those who are similar to us in

any of these areas

Studies have revealed diminished activity in the ________ of violent criminals.

frontal lobes

Toby publicly agrees with his fraternity brothers that Ahmed, a senior, would make the best student senate president. On the secret ballot, however, he actually votes for Yoram. Toby's public conformity to his fraternity brothers' opinion best illustrates the power of

normative social influence

An explanation of aggression in terms of instinct would have the most difficulty accounting for

wide cultural variations in agressiveness

Social facilitation is most likely to occur in the performance of ________ tasks.


Caitlin concluded that her husband was late for dinner because he was caught in heavy traffic. Her conclusion best illustrates

a situational attribution

In group situations, the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint that fosters arousal and anonymity is called


People may unconsciously harbor negative racial associations. This best illustrates the subtle nature of

implicit prejudice

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