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For Dr. Hendersons Class

A 16-year-old boy shoots a neighbor for no apparent reason. This vivid example strongly influences people's judgments of all teen boys because people

estimate the frequency of group characteristics in terms of how memorable those characteristics are

According to Carl Rogers, people nurture our growth by being genuine, accepting, and


According to Dr Henderson, we are more likely to assist someone who has ___________ to us.


According to Freud, boys develop unconscious sexual desires for their mother during the ________ stage.


According to Freud, the most important erogenous zone during earliest infancy consists of the


According to Maslow, our need for ________ must be met before we are prompted to satisfy our need for ________.

food; love

After breaking up with his girlfriend, Eric came down with a severe respiratory infection. His illness may have been exacerbated to a large extent by a(n) ________ in his body's release of ________.

decrease; lymphocytes

After their country was ravaged by a series of earthquakes, two bitterly antagonistic political groups set aside their differences and worked cooperatively on effective disaster relief. This cooperation best illustrates the importance of

subordinate goals

"A great way to restart the clock was to shock the body" this example was given by Dr Henderson during lecture for _______

Electroconvulsive Therapy

Alex feels so hopeless and depressed that he has recently thought about taking his own life. The drug most likely to prove beneficial to him is


Although inflammation helps fight infections, persistent inflammation heightens the risk of

all of these problems

Although newspapers reported that a murder victim had been stabbed with a knife, two police investigators knew that the actual murder weapon was a letter opener. While carefully monitoring the changes in heart rate and perspiration level of a prime suspect, the investigators asked him if he typically used a letter opener on his mail. The investigators were making use of the

guilty-knowledge test

Altruism is best described as

behaving unselfishly to enhance the welfare of others

Arturo believes that most young women from California are extremely good-looking and that extremely good-looking women are usually selfish and egotistical. His beliefs are examples of


As a member of the diplomatic corps, Alex was given special training in the customs, language, and religions of the nonindustrialized country where he would be living. However, Alex probably needed little training to correctly interpret his hosts' expressions of emotion as revealed by their

facial expressions

As Arlette walks through a shopping mall, she happens to pass an older woman who is sitting on a bench, clutching her arm, and moaning in pain. The presence of many other shoppers in the mall will most likely increase the probability that Arlette will

fail to notice the older woman's problem

As discussed in lecture, "A little bit of stress is good" according to the ____

Optimum Arousal Theory

As discussed in lecture, a physiologically aroused state (ie fight or flight) is associated with the ______

sympathetic nervous system

As discussed in lecture, a token economy is where tokens are exchanged for __________awards


As discussed in lecture Dr Henderson stated that _____ is used as a last resort today for dealing with psychological problems


As discussed in lecture, if your face is more ____________ it will be rated more beautiful than others that are not.


As discussed in lecture, _________ is doing something for the benefit of others with no expectation in return


As discussed in lecture, Milgram's study on obedience was inspired by the atrocities of _______.

World War II

As discussed in lecture, the "id" is the __________ principle of the unconscious


As discussed in lecture, the neurotransmitter _________ is strongly linked to depression


As discussed in lecture, therapy does not work unless _____

the patient wants it to work

As discussed in lecture, what amount has been found to have the greatest impact on people when it comes to conformity?

3 or more

As mentioned in lecture, according to Maslow,_______________ is the optimal objective of human potential


As passionate love matures into a calm and steady companionate love, the bonding of two partners is most likely to be facilitated by


As presented in lecture, a medication such as _______ would most likely be prescribed for an individual suffering from bipolar disorder


As presented in lecture and the text, a _________ has the ability to prescribe medication

Psychiatrist (MD)

As presented in lecture cognitive-behavioral therapy focuses on the thought/behavior cycle and that cycle


As presented in lecture, _________ developed the Psychoanalytic Theory and the concepts of psychoanalysis

Sigmund Freud

As presented in lecture Dr Henderson stated that one person's definition of sad would be ____ from/as others


As presented in lecture drives are________ and needs are _________

physiological; biological

As presented in lectured, the ______ is the main focus of a psychodynamic therapies

unconscious mind

As presented in lecture, if Dr Henderson says, "Wow, she must be really angry with me", when in fact Dr Henderson is actually angry with her, this is an example of the defense mechanism called __________


As presented in lecture, one of the major criticisms with the Psychoanalytic Theory is that it is hard to find/establish ________

the unconsious

As presented in lecture personality is primarily________, according to the psychodynamic perspective


As presented in lecture, the goal of therapy is to reduce or eliminate_________behavior


As presented in lecture the idea that bad things happen only to other people is an example of the _________ error.


As presented in lecture the idea that bad things happen only to other people is an example of the _________ error.


As presented in lecture when there is an inconsistency between verbal and non-verbal communication _____ is implied

some kind of deception

As presented in lecture, when we are in an aroused state our blood flow______ and our pupils___________

increases, dilate

As provided in lecture, ___________ is how we feel about what we know about ourselves.


As provided in lecture, Kitty Genovese was the example given pertaining to the bystander effect, in which she was brutally murdered with ____________ witnesses.


As provided in lecture, putting yourself in someone else's shoes is an example of _______________.


As provided in lecture, the greatest hurdle to empathy is _______________.

snap judgements

Astrid was emotionally aroused by a TV horror movie. She became extremely angry when her younger brother momentarily blocked her view of the screen. When her movie viewing was interrupted by a phone call from her boyfriend, however, she experienced unusually intense romantic feelings. Astrid's different emotional reactions to her brother and her boyfriend are best explained by

the two-factor theory

Because people are biopsychosocial organisms, the study of personality most clearly benefits from the use of

multiple levels of analysis

Being sociable and fun-loving is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of


The belief that some distressing physical symptoms made no neurological sense contributed most directly to

Freud's interest in unconscious conflicts

The best psychotherapy outcome studies are randomized clinical trials comparing treatment groups with ________ groups.


Blindfolded people were observed to clap louder when they thought they were clapping alone than when they thought they were clapping with others. This best illustrates

social loafing

Bullying younger children earns Diego the attention and respect of many classmates. As a result, his bullying behavior increases. This most clearly suggests that his aggression is a(n)

learned response

By attacking the body's own tissues, an overly reactive immune system is most likely to cause


Caitlin concluded that her husband was late for dinner because he was caught in heavy traffic. Her conclusion best illustrates

a situational attribution

Carl Rogers encouraged client-centered therapists to ______ during the process of therapy.

genuinely express their own true feelings

Carl Rogers suggested that those who fall far short of their ideal self experience

a negative self-concept

Central route persuasion is most likely when people

are naturally analytical

The characteristic that most clearly contributes to the disease vulnerability of Type A personalities is their feelings of


Chiara, a 41-year-old, is of average height but weighs only 80 pounds. She has lost 30 pounds over the last six months by eating very little and running five miles a day. She is determined not to become overweight and ignores her parents' suggestion that she should eat well-balanced meals. Chiara suffers from

anorexia nervosa

Chlorpromazine is an antipsychotic drug that reduces paranoia and hallucinations by

dampening responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli

Clients often stay in touch with their psychotherapists only if satisfied with the treatment they received. This helps us understand why therapists

tend to overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy

A coach who convincingly extols the superior strength of upcoming opponents makes a victory appear ________ praiseworthy and a loss appear ________ understandable.

more; more

Cognitive dissonance theory emphasizes that we seek to reduce the discomfort we feel when we become aware that

our attitudes and actions clash

Cognitive dissonance theory is most helpful for understanding

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon

Compared with nonplayers, people with extensive exposure to violent video gaming display ________ desensitization to violence, and they are ________ likely to help an injured victim.

more; less

Compared with past years, people in developed countries today are consuming ________ food and engaging in ________ physical activity.

more; less

Compared with those having high self-esteem, individuals with low self-esteem are likely to

feel anxious and lonely

Compared with those who do not experience a disorder, those who abuse alcohol have a ________ risk of committing suicide. Compared with the general population, those who have been depressed have a ________ risk of committing suicide.

higher; higher

Compared with those who perceive an external locus of control, people who perceive an internal locus of control are

likely to be academically successful

Compared with women 40 years ago, American women today are more likely to marry for the sake of


The concept of relative deprivation refers to the perception that

one is worse off than those with whom one compares oneself

Conformity is best described as

adjusting one's behavior or thinking toward a group standard.

Connie is a 20-year-old who is stressed by the financial challenges and heavy workload associated with being a full-time college student. Which of the following would most likely help her to avoid or minimize episodes of depression?

therapeutic lifestyle change

Coping with anxiety by retreating to behavior patterns characteristic of a more infantile stage of development is called


Corbett refuses to take reasonable precautions to protect his health because he believes good health is just a matter of luck anyway. Corbett's attitude best illustrates

an external locus of control

The country of Superlia increased the size of its military force because its leaders inappropriately anticipated that their rival, the country of Piropia, would do the same. The Piropians subsequently felt it was necessary to respond to the Superlian military buildup with a military expansion of their own. The Piropian response best illustrates the danger of

self-fulfilling prophecies

A criticism of social-cognitive theories has been that they

underestimate the importance of enduring personality traits

D-cycloserine helps relieve the symptoms of

obsessive-compulsive disorder

A desire to pursue high standards and significant accomplishments is indicative of

achievement motivation

The distorted perceptions that enemies often have of each other are called mirror-image perceptions because they are


Doug's wife abandoned him with their 2 month baby. He has no steady income or anyone to provide him with help. As discussed in lecture, Doug is experiencing __________________

threat stress

The dramatic increase in reported cases of dissociative identity disorder since the 1960s most strongly suggests that symptoms of this disorder involve

role playing

Dr. Judd is convinced that psychological disorders result largely from stressful social situations rather than from disturbances within the individual personality. Dr. Judd's belief is most consistent with the assumptions that underlie

preventive mental health

Dr. Ligorano has devoted his professional life to researching the desires and needs that energize and direct behavior. His area of research has obviously been


Dr. Miller prescribes drugs for the treatment of chronic depression, and she encourages rest and relaxation training for clients suffering from excessive anxiety. It is most likely that Dr. Miller is a


A drop in basal metabolic rate is most likely to result from

a semistarvation diet

Dr. Volz is a researcher who wants to distinguish between the direct effects of a new antianxiety medication and effects arising from expectations of the drug's effectiveness. Dr. Volz is most likely to use a method known as

double-blind procedure

During a test, Abe impulsively copied several answers from a nearby student's paper. He felt very uncomfortable about having done this until he convinced himself that copying answers is not wrong if classmates are careless enough to expose their test sheets. Which theory best explains why Abe adopted this new attitude?

cognitive dissonance theory

During the 1940s and 1950s, lobotomies were most likely to be performed on psychologically disordered patients who were

uncontrollably violent

Dylan is a second-year undergraduate who feels so incompetent that he believes his life is worthless and hopeless. Dylan would profit the most from

Beck's cognitive therapy

The emotions of anger and fear involve similar

patterns of automatic arousal

Equity and self-disclosure are important to the development of

compassionate love

Estée's legs are paralyzed, but she is able to minimize the stress that the inability to walk might have caused by viewing this handicap as a challenge rather than a threat. This illustrates the importance of

stress appraisal

Evidence that dissociative identity disorder is NOT simply a product of conscious role playing is most clearly provided by the

distinct brain an body states associated with differing personalities

Exaggerated feelings of self-importance are most closely linked with


An explanation of aggression in terms of instinct would have the most difficulty accounting for

wide cultural variations in agressiveness

Explicit associations are typically ________, whereas implicit associations are often ________.

conscious; unconscious

The facial expressions associated with particular emotions are

the same throughout the world

Feeling responsible for behavior that violates our conscience is most likely to contribute to

cognitive dissonance

Feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in particular ways to objects, people, and events are called


Feelings of worthlessness are most likely to be associated with

major depressive disorder

Ferdinand was assigned to a small dormitory room with two other freshman roommates. As a result, he feels he has little control over his environment. His body is most likely to respond with

elevated blood pressure

Freud believed that our repressed impulses express themselves in

all of these forms

Freud believed that the latent content of dreams was


Freud referred to the remembered story line of a dream as its

manifest content

The fundamental attribution error best illustrates that we may often underestimate the importance of

social control

The fundamental attribution error is most likely to lead observers to conclude that unemployed people

are irresponsible and unmotivated

Gina is so fearful of taking tests for college courses that she experiences mild anxiety when registering for a course, intense anxiety when studying for a test, and extreme anxiety when answering actual test questions. Her greatest fear, however, is experienced while waiting for a professor to hand out tests. During the process of systematically desensitizing her test anxiety, the therapist is likely to ask Gina first to imagine

registering for a college course

Groupthink can be prevented by a leader who

invites outside experts to critique a group's developing plans

High rates of violence are most common among those who experience minimal levels of

foster care

Home-life satisfaction is more strongly predictive of subjective well-being in wealthy nations than in poorer ones. This fact would be most clearly anticipated by

hierarchy of needs theory

Humanistic therapists are likely to teach clients to

take more responsibility for their own feelings and actions

If research indicated that phobias result from a chemical imbalance in the central nervous system, this would most clearly give added credibility to

the medical model

If therapy clients repeatedly imbibe an alcoholic drink mixed with a nausea-producing drug, an alcoholic drink without the drug is likely to become a(n) ________ for feelings of nausea.


The image of an iceberg is frequently used to illustrate ________ idea of the mind's structure


In anger-provoking situations, sexually aroused people experience more intense hostility than those who are not sexually aroused. This best illustrates

the spillover effect

In assessing a client's personal growth, Carl Rogers measured the correspondence between

ideal self and actual self

The influence of personal and cultural experience on our wants and desires can most clearly be seen in the influence of ________ on motivation.


Influencing patients by therapeutically controlling the consequences of their actions illustrates an application of

operant conditioning

In group situations, the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint that fosters arousal and anonymity is called


In lecture, Dr Henderson showed a picture that states "If its good its Mister Coffee, if its bad its me?" this is an example of ________.

fundamental attribution error

In lecture, Dr Henderson showed a video of the Milgram's experiment, in the video what was the teacher doing to the learner?

Administering a shock

In lecture, Dr Henderson stated that _____________ is when an individual withholds information from a person based on their snap judgments of that person.


In most developing societies today (as in Europe in earlier centuries), obesity is a sign of

high social status

In national surveys, most business executives say they are more ethical than their average counterpart. This best illustrates

self-serving bias

In one experiment, Asian-American clients were more likely to perceive counselor empathy if their counselor

shared the clients' cultural values

In one study, polygraph experts interpreted the polygraph data of 100 people who had been suspects in crimes of theft. Had the polygraph experts been the judges of guilt or innocence

more than one-third of the truly innocent would have been declared guilty

In some ways, each of us is just like everyone else. This fact enables astrologers to effectively make use of a technique known as

the stock spiel

In the last 70 years, Americans have expressed

increasing readiness to vote for a qualified female presidential candidate

In the video of Tony Robins, he explained that _________ was the force of life


In which operant conditioning procedure are positive reinforcers given for desired behaviors?

a token economy

It is characteristic of robins to build nests. This is an example of

an instinct

Jessica feels so self-important and is so self-focused that she unrealistically believes all of her teachers, classmates, and acquaintances are eager to read her hour-by-hour Facebook postings. Jessica best illustrates characteristics of


Job applicants are interviewed by either friendly or unfriendly employers who sit either very close to or at a normal distance from the applicants. Research suggests that applicants will like best the friendly employers who sit at a ________ distance and will like least the unfriendly employers who sit at a ________ distance.

very close; very close

Jonathan is afraid to ask a girl for a date, so his therapist instructs him to relax and simply imagine he is reaching for a telephone and then calling a potential date. The therapist's technique best illustrates the process of

systematic desensitization

Julio believes that no matter how hard he works, the "system" is so biased against his ethnic group that he will be unable to achieve economic success. Julio's thinking most clearly demonstrates

an external locus of control

The just-world phenomenon often leads people to

believe that victims of misfortune deserve to suffer

The level of arousal typically associated with peak performance tends to be

higher on well-learned tasks

Like evolutionary psychology, instinct theory most clearly assumed that behavior is influenced by

genetic predispositions

Mania is most likely to be characterized by feelings of


Many North American parents want to pick names for their children that sound unique or are spelled in an unusual way. This desire best illustrates one of the consequences of


Many professionals outside the field of psychology are prepared to offer psychotherapy in the process of completing a graduate program in

social work

Martin is optimistic, impulsive, excitable, and restless. In terms of the Eysencks' basic personality dimensions, he would be classified as


Melissa regularly donates blood to an international blood bank simply because she believes she ought to help anyone with a medical need for a blood transfusion. Melissa's altruism best illustrates the impact of

the social-responsibility norm

The mere exposure effect most directly contributes to the positive relationship between ________ and liking.


Mood linkage refers to

sharing the moods of those around us

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