A 16-year-old boy shoots a neighbor for no apparent reason. This vivid example strongly influences people's judgments of all teen boys because people
estimate the frequency of group characteristics in terms of how memorable those characteristics are
According to Dr Henderson, we are more likely to assist someone who has ___________ to us.
According to Freud, boys develop unconscious sexual desires for their mother during the ________ stage.
According to Maslow, our need for ________ must be met before we are prompted to satisfy our need for ________.
After breaking up with his girlfriend, Eric came down with a severe respiratory infection. His illness may have been exacerbated to a large extent by a(n) ________ in his body's release of ________.
After their country was ravaged by a series of earthquakes, two bitterly antagonistic political groups set aside their differences and worked cooperatively on effective disaster relief. This cooperation best illustrates the importance of
"A great way to restart the clock was to shock the body" this example was given by Dr Henderson during lecture for _______
Alex feels so hopeless and depressed that he has recently thought about taking his own life. The drug most likely to prove beneficial to him is
Although inflammation helps fight infections, persistent inflammation heightens the risk of
all of these problems
Although newspapers reported that a murder victim had been stabbed with a knife, two police investigators knew that the actual murder weapon was a letter opener. While carefully monitoring the changes in heart rate and perspiration level of a prime suspect, the investigators asked him if he typically used a letter opener on his mail. The investigators were making use of the
Arturo believes that most young women from California are extremely good-looking and that extremely good-looking women are usually selfish and egotistical. His beliefs are examples of
As a member of the diplomatic corps, Alex was given special training in the customs, language, and religions of the nonindustrialized country where he would be living. However, Alex probably needed little training to correctly interpret his hosts' expressions of emotion as revealed by their
As Arlette walks through a shopping mall, she happens to pass an older woman who is sitting on a bench, clutching her arm, and moaning in pain. The presence of many other shoppers in the mall will most likely increase the probability that Arlette will
fail to notice the older woman's problem
As discussed in lecture, "A little bit of stress is good" according to the ____
Optimum Arousal Theory
As discussed in lecture, a physiologically aroused state (ie fight or flight) is associated with the ______
sympathetic nervous system
As discussed in lecture Dr Henderson stated that _____ is used as a last resort today for dealing with psychological problems
As discussed in lecture, if your face is more ____________ it will be rated more beautiful than others that are not.
As discussed in lecture, _________ is doing something for the benefit of others with no expectation in return
As discussed in lecture, Milgram's study on obedience was inspired by the atrocities of _______.
World War II
As discussed in lecture, what amount has been found to have the greatest impact on people when it comes to conformity?
3 or more
As mentioned in lecture, according to Maslow,_______________ is the optimal objective of human potential
As passionate love matures into a calm and steady companionate love, the bonding of two partners is most likely to be facilitated by
As presented in lecture, a medication such as _______ would most likely be prescribed for an individual suffering from bipolar disorder
As presented in lecture and the text, a _________ has the ability to prescribe medication
As presented in lecture cognitive-behavioral therapy focuses on the thought/behavior cycle and that cycle
As presented in lecture, _________ developed the Psychoanalytic Theory and the concepts of psychoanalysis
As presented in lecture Dr Henderson stated that one person's definition of sad would be ____ from/as others
As presented in lectured, the ______ is the main focus of a psychodynamic therapies
As presented in lecture, if Dr Henderson says, "Wow, she must be really angry with me", when in fact Dr Henderson is actually angry with her, this is an example of the defense mechanism called __________
As presented in lecture, one of the major criticisms with the Psychoanalytic Theory is that it is hard to find/establish ________
As presented in lecture personality is primarily________, according to the psychodynamic perspective
As presented in lecture the idea that bad things happen only to other people is an example of the _________ error.
As presented in lecture the idea that bad things happen only to other people is an example of the _________ error.
As presented in lecture when there is an inconsistency between verbal and non-verbal communication _____ is implied
some kind of deception
As presented in lecture, when we are in an aroused state our blood flow______ and our pupils___________
As provided in lecture, Kitty Genovese was the example given pertaining to the bystander effect, in which she was brutally murdered with ____________ witnesses.
As provided in lecture, putting yourself in someone else's shoes is an example of _______________.
Astrid was emotionally aroused by a TV horror movie. She became extremely angry when her younger brother momentarily blocked her view of the screen. When her movie viewing was interrupted by a phone call from her boyfriend, however, she experienced unusually intense romantic feelings. Astrid's different emotional reactions to her brother and her boyfriend are best explained by
the two-factor theory
Because people are biopsychosocial organisms, the study of personality most clearly benefits from the use of
multiple levels of analysis
Being sociable and fun-loving is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of
The belief that some distressing physical symptoms made no neurological sense contributed most directly to
Freud's interest in unconscious conflicts
The best psychotherapy outcome studies are randomized clinical trials comparing treatment groups with ________ groups.
Blindfolded people were observed to clap louder when they thought they were clapping alone than when they thought they were clapping with others. This best illustrates
Bullying younger children earns Diego the attention and respect of many classmates. As a result, his bullying behavior increases. This most clearly suggests that his aggression is a(n)
By attacking the body's own tissues, an overly reactive immune system is most likely to cause
Caitlin concluded that her husband was late for dinner because he was caught in heavy traffic. Her conclusion best illustrates
a situational attribution
Carl Rogers encouraged client-centered therapists to ______ during the process of therapy.
genuinely express their own true feelings
Carl Rogers suggested that those who fall far short of their ideal self experience
a negative self-concept
The characteristic that most clearly contributes to the disease vulnerability of Type A personalities is their feelings of
Chiara, a 41-year-old, is of average height but weighs only 80 pounds. She has lost 30 pounds over the last six months by eating very little and running five miles a day. She is determined not to become overweight and ignores her parents' suggestion that she should eat well-balanced meals. Chiara suffers from
Chlorpromazine is an antipsychotic drug that reduces paranoia and hallucinations by
dampening responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli
Clients often stay in touch with their psychotherapists only if satisfied with the treatment they received. This helps us understand why therapists
tend to overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy
A coach who convincingly extols the superior strength of upcoming opponents makes a victory appear ________ praiseworthy and a loss appear ________ understandable.
Cognitive dissonance theory emphasizes that we seek to reduce the discomfort we feel when we become aware that
our attitudes and actions clash
Compared with nonplayers, people with extensive exposure to violent video gaming display ________ desensitization to violence, and they are ________ likely to help an injured victim.
Compared with past years, people in developed countries today are consuming ________ food and engaging in ________ physical activity.
Compared with those having high self-esteem, individuals with low self-esteem are likely to
feel anxious and lonely
Compared with those who do not experience a disorder, those who abuse alcohol have a ________ risk of committing suicide. Compared with the general population, those who have been depressed have a ________ risk of committing suicide.
Compared with those who perceive an external locus of control, people who perceive an internal locus of control are
likely to be academically successful
Compared with women 40 years ago, American women today are more likely to marry for the sake of
The concept of relative deprivation refers to the perception that
one is worse off than those with whom one compares oneself
Connie is a 20-year-old who is stressed by the financial challenges and heavy workload associated with being a full-time college student. Which of the following would most likely help her to avoid or minimize episodes of depression?
therapeutic lifestyle change
Coping with anxiety by retreating to behavior patterns characteristic of a more infantile stage of development is called
Corbett refuses to take reasonable precautions to protect his health because he believes good health is just a matter of luck anyway. Corbett's attitude best illustrates
an external locus of control
The country of Superlia increased the size of its military force because its leaders inappropriately anticipated that their rival, the country of Piropia, would do the same. The Piropians subsequently felt it was necessary to respond to the Superlian military buildup with a military expansion of their own. The Piropian response best illustrates the danger of
A criticism of social-cognitive theories has been that they
underestimate the importance of enduring personality traits
A desire to pursue high standards and significant accomplishments is indicative of
The distorted perceptions that enemies often have of each other are called mirror-image perceptions because they are
Doug's wife abandoned him with their 2 month baby. He has no steady income or anyone to provide him with help. As discussed in lecture, Doug is experiencing __________________
The dramatic increase in reported cases of dissociative identity disorder since the 1960s most strongly suggests that symptoms of this disorder involve
Dr. Judd is convinced that psychological disorders result largely from stressful social situations rather than from disturbances within the individual personality. Dr. Judd's belief is most consistent with the assumptions that underlie
preventive mental health
Dr. Ligorano has devoted his professional life to researching the desires and needs that energize and direct behavior. His area of research has obviously been
Dr. Miller prescribes drugs for the treatment of chronic depression, and she encourages rest and relaxation training for clients suffering from excessive anxiety. It is most likely that Dr. Miller is a
Dr. Volz is a researcher who wants to distinguish between the direct effects of a new antianxiety medication and effects arising from expectations of the drug's effectiveness. Dr. Volz is most likely to use a method known as
During a test, Abe impulsively copied several answers from a nearby student's paper. He felt very uncomfortable about having done this until he convinced himself that copying answers is not wrong if classmates are careless enough to expose their test sheets. Which theory best explains why Abe adopted this new attitude?
cognitive dissonance theory
During the 1940s and 1950s, lobotomies were most likely to be performed on psychologically disordered patients who were
Dylan is a second-year undergraduate who feels so incompetent that he believes his life is worthless and hopeless. Dylan would profit the most from
Beck's cognitive therapy
Estée's legs are paralyzed, but she is able to minimize the stress that the inability to walk might have caused by viewing this handicap as a challenge rather than a threat. This illustrates the importance of
Evidence that dissociative identity disorder is NOT simply a product of conscious role playing is most clearly provided by the
distinct brain an body states associated with differing personalities
An explanation of aggression in terms of instinct would have the most difficulty accounting for
wide cultural variations in agressiveness
Explicit associations are typically ________, whereas implicit associations are often ________.
Feeling responsible for behavior that violates our conscience is most likely to contribute to
Feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in particular ways to objects, people, and events are called
Ferdinand was assigned to a small dormitory room with two other freshman roommates. As a result, he feels he has little control over his environment. His body is most likely to respond with
elevated blood pressure
The fundamental attribution error best illustrates that we may often underestimate the importance of
The fundamental attribution error is most likely to lead observers to conclude that unemployed people
are irresponsible and unmotivated
Gina is so fearful of taking tests for college courses that she experiences mild anxiety when registering for a course, intense anxiety when studying for a test, and extreme anxiety when answering actual test questions. Her greatest fear, however, is experienced while waiting for a professor to hand out tests. During the process of systematically desensitizing her test anxiety, the therapist is likely to ask Gina first to imagine
registering for a college course
Groupthink can be prevented by a leader who
invites outside experts to critique a group's developing plans
Home-life satisfaction is more strongly predictive of subjective well-being in wealthy nations than in poorer ones. This fact would be most clearly anticipated by
hierarchy of needs theory
Humanistic therapists are likely to teach clients to
take more responsibility for their own feelings and actions
If research indicated that phobias result from a chemical imbalance in the central nervous system, this would most clearly give added credibility to
the medical model
If therapy clients repeatedly imbibe an alcoholic drink mixed with a nausea-producing drug, an alcoholic drink without the drug is likely to become a(n) ________ for feelings of nausea.
The image of an iceberg is frequently used to illustrate ________ idea of the mind's structure
In anger-provoking situations, sexually aroused people experience more intense hostility than those who are not sexually aroused. This best illustrates
the spillover effect
In assessing a client's personal growth, Carl Rogers measured the correspondence between
ideal self and actual self
The influence of personal and cultural experience on our wants and desires can most clearly be seen in the influence of ________ on motivation.
Influencing patients by therapeutically controlling the consequences of their actions illustrates an application of
In group situations, the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint that fosters arousal and anonymity is called
In lecture, Dr Henderson showed a picture that states "If its good its Mister Coffee, if its bad its me?" this is an example of ________.
fundamental attribution error
In lecture, Dr Henderson showed a video of the Milgram's experiment, in the video what was the teacher doing to the learner?
Administering a shock
In lecture, Dr Henderson stated that _____________ is when an individual withholds information from a person based on their snap judgments of that person.
In most developing societies today (as in Europe in earlier centuries), obesity is a sign of
high social status
In national surveys, most business executives say they are more ethical than their average counterpart. This best illustrates
In one experiment, Asian-American clients were more likely to perceive counselor empathy if their counselor
shared the clients' cultural values
In one study, polygraph experts interpreted the polygraph data of 100 people who had been suspects in crimes of theft. Had the polygraph experts been the judges of guilt or innocence
more than one-third of the truly innocent would have been declared guilty
In some ways, each of us is just like everyone else. This fact enables astrologers to effectively make use of a technique known as
the stock spiel
In the last 70 years, Americans have expressed
increasing readiness to vote for a qualified female presidential candidate
In which operant conditioning procedure are positive reinforcers given for desired behaviors?
a token economy
Jessica feels so self-important and is so self-focused that she unrealistically believes all of her teachers, classmates, and acquaintances are eager to read her hour-by-hour Facebook postings. Jessica best illustrates characteristics of
Job applicants are interviewed by either friendly or unfriendly employers who sit either very close to or at a normal distance from the applicants. Research suggests that applicants will like best the friendly employers who sit at a ________ distance and will like least the unfriendly employers who sit at a ________ distance.
very close; very close
Jonathan is afraid to ask a girl for a date, so his therapist instructs him to relax and simply imagine he is reaching for a telephone and then calling a potential date. The therapist's technique best illustrates the process of
Julio believes that no matter how hard he works, the "system" is so biased against his ethnic group that he will be unable to achieve economic success. Julio's thinking most clearly demonstrates
an external locus of control
The just-world phenomenon often leads people to
believe that victims of misfortune deserve to suffer
The level of arousal typically associated with peak performance tends to be
higher on well-learned tasks
Like evolutionary psychology, instinct theory most clearly assumed that behavior is influenced by
Many North American parents want to pick names for their children that sound unique or are spelled in an unusual way. This desire best illustrates one of the consequences of
Many professionals outside the field of psychology are prepared to offer psychotherapy in the process of completing a graduate program in
Martin is optimistic, impulsive, excitable, and restless. In terms of the Eysencks' basic personality dimensions, he would be classified as
Melissa regularly donates blood to an international blood bank simply because she believes she ought to help anyone with a medical need for a blood transfusion. Melissa's altruism best illustrates the impact of
the social-responsibility norm
The mere exposure effect most directly contributes to the positive relationship between ________ and liking.
Most children believe their school is better than the other schools in town. This best illustrates
Mr. Choi's therapist wants to help him become aware of his conflicting childhood feelings of love and hate for his parents. The therapist's goal best reflects a primary aim of
Mr. Hanson is strongly suspected of embezzling money from his employer. He has denied the allegation. To determine whether he is lying, investigators are most likely to ask Mr. Hanson to take a(n) ________ test.
Mrs. Crane frequently thinks she has to shout at her husband to get his attention, but he thinks she yells because she's angry. Mr. Crane typically feels he has to shout back at his wife to defend himself, but she thinks his screaming proves that he's hostile. This couple's experience best illustrates
mirror image perceptions
Norby, an 18-year-old first-year university student, has missed almost all his classes during the past month. He spends most of his time in his bedroom, frequently not even bothering to get dressed or eat meals. He thinks his whole life has been a failure and blames himself for being a social misfit. Norby is most likely suffering from
major depressive disorder
North Americans are more likely than Japanese citizens to display their feelings openly. This cultural difference best reflects the American culture's greater emphasis on
Observers watching videos of speed-dating encounters can detect a man's level of romantic interest ________ accurately than a woman's. If women at a speed-dating event stay seated while the men circulate, men wish for future contact with ________ of their speed dates than do women.
One aggression-replacement program has brought down re-arrest rates of juvenile offenders by
encouraging them to engage in more thoughtful moral reasoning
One group of ocean voyagers is given a new but untested pill for seasickness and a second group is given an inactive pill. Neither the voyagers nor the experimental researchers know which group has received the new pill. In this experiment, the investigators are making use of
One option for dealing with stress, which is more common among women than men, is
the tend-to-befriend response
On which of the following tasks would the presence of observers be LEAST likely to lead to better and faster performance?
solving a crossword puzzle
Our tendency to judge various stimuli relative to those we have previously experienced is called
the adaptation-level phenomenon
Parents who discipline their children with beatings are often teaching aggression through the process of
People consume more ice cream when scooping it with a big scoop rather than a small one. This best illustrates
People may unconsciously harbor negative racial associations. This best illustrates the subtle nature of
People tend to prefer a(n) ________ image of themselves, while their friends prefer a ________ version of them.
People with high self-esteem are LESS likely than those with low self-esteem to
give in to conformity pressures
The perception that one can strongly influence the outcome and destiny of one's own life exemplifies
an internal locus of control
The Plattsville blood bank is desperately in need of blood donors. Which of the following students would most likely contribute to the blood bank, if asked?
Ardyce, who has just fallen head-over-heels in love
Portrayals of women as initially fleeing but subsequently enjoying coercive sexual encounters illustrate what is known as
the rape myth
The practice of ________ is based on the application of operant conditioning principles.
The presence of many bystanders at the scene of an emergency increases the likelihood that any individual bystander will
fail to interpret the incident as an emergency
Psychoanalysts are most likely to view patient transference as
a helpful aid to the process of therapy
Psychologists assess a wide range of emotional and behavioral traits by means of
A psychotherapist is most likely to use the DSM-IV-TR in order to ________ various psychological disorders.
Rats come to fear locations paired with electric shock. This best illustrates
Recognizing the powerful impact of social influence on others' behaviors is most likely to minimize
the fundamental attribution error
Researchers have found that certain factors are related to happiness. One of these is that happy people tend to
have a satisfying marriage or close friendship
Researchers have found that people experience cartoons as more amusing while holding a pen with their teeth than while holding it with their lips. This best illustrates
the facial feedback effect
Research on gender prejudice and discrimination indicates that
people perceive their fathers as more intelligent than their mothers despite gender equality in intelligence scores.
Research on obesity and weight control indicates that
once we become fat, we require less food to maintain our weight than we did to attain it.
Research on physical attractiveness indicates that men are more likely than women to
judge members of the opposite sex as more attractive if they have a youthful appearance.
Research on the genetic and environmental influences on body weight has revealed that
the wrights of adopted children correlate with those of their biological parents, not with those of their adoptive parents.
Rhonda has just learned that her neighbor Patricia was involved in an automobile accident at a nearby intersection. The tendency to make the fundamental attribution error may lead Rhonda to conclude
"Patricia's recklessness has finally gotten her into trouble."
Rogers' and Maslow's emphasis on developing human strengths laid the groundwork for today's
Several neural areas within the ________ regulate the extent to which we are motivated to eat.
A small number of the contributors to any field typically produce a disproportionately large share of its accomplishments despite the fact that their less productive professional colleagues are fairly comparable in raw ability. This best illustrates the importance of
Social roles are especially likely to be central to people's self-identity in ________ cultures.
Some psychoanalysts of Freud's era claimed that girls experienced an Electra complex involving an unconscious
sexual desire for their father
Some researchers prefer the term settling point to set point because the typical body weight of an adult is influenced by
environmental as well as biological factors
The spillover effect refers to the impact of lingering ________ on the intensity of any subsequent emotional reactions.
Studies of observers' ability to detect whether people are lying or telling the truth indicate that the number of observers' correct judgments are ________ than one would predict from chance.
only slightly greater
The suggestion that we share a friend's feelings of joy if we smile with him or her best illustrates the logic of the
Systematic desensitization is based on the idea that ________ facilitates the elimination of fear.
Tardive dyskinesia is often associated with long-term use of drugs that occupy certain ________ receptor sites.
The tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions on another's behavior is called
fundamental attribution error
The text defines social psychology as the scientific study of how people ________ one another
think about, influence and relate to
A therapist claims that Luke's irrational fear of snakes results from repressed childhood feelings of hostility toward his own father. The therapist's interpretation reflects a ________ perspective.
Toby publicly agrees with his fraternity brothers that Ahmed, a senior, would make the best student senate president. On the secret ballot, however, he actually votes for Yoram. Toby's public conformity to his fraternity brothers' opinion best illustrates the power of
normative social influence
A token economy is to operant conditioning as ________ is to classical conditioning.
To treat nail biting, one can paint a patient's fingernails with a nasty-tasting nail polish. This procedure best illustrates
The tragic murder of Kitty Genovese outside her New York apartment stimulated social-psychology research on
Trait theorists would be most likely to highlight the impact of our biologically inherited ________ on personality.
Transference refers to a client's
expression toward a therapist of feeling linked with earlier life relationships
Treating our mind and body as independent entities seems especially inappropriate to those who take a ________ approach to therapy.
Two friends quarreled over possession of a single orange without realizing that one of them simply wanted orange juice and the other simply wanted the orange peel to make a cake. This classic episode best illustrates that people sometimes fail to recognize
The use of personal pronouns in text messaging is best predicted by the Big Five trait of
Vaseem experienced excessive fear while flying because he interpreted his rapid heart rate, shallow breathing, and heavy perspiration as a reaction to the imminent danger of a plane crash. When his psychotherapist convinced him that this physical arousal was simply a harmless reaction to acceleration, cabin pressure, and confined space, his fear of flying was greatly reduced. The reduction in Vaseem's fear is best understood in terms of
Veena gets poor grades no matter how hard she studies, so she has simply given up studying. Veena's behavior most clearly reflects
We are especially likely to notice the impact of social influence when we experience
When 15,000 Canadians were asked whether they were trying to take on too many tasks at once, responses indicated highest stress levels among
When an organism's weight falls below its set point, the organism is likely to experience a(n) ________ in hunger and a(n) ________ in its basal metabolic rate
When Armen first heard the hit song "Lose Yourself," he wasn't at all sure he liked it. The more often he heard it played, however, the more he enjoyed it. Armen's reaction illustrates
the mere exposure effect
When encouraged to eat as much as they want, people tend to eat less if the foods are offered in smaller rather than larger portion sizes. This illustrates
When experimenters have implanted tumor cells into rodents, those exposed to ________ were more prone to cancer.
When guilty knowledge tests are used with enough specific probes
innocent suspects are seldom judged guilty by polygraph examiners
When Laura acts happy, she experiences increased feelings of cheerfulness. This best illustrates
the behavior feedback effect
When we are too hot, we perspire in order to lower our body temperature and thereby
Which drug enhances the benefits of exposure therapy and helps relieve the symptoms of PTSD and OCD?
Which form of therapy has most directly contributed to the sharp reduction in the number of residents in U.S. mental hospitals?
Which form of therapy is most likely to be criticized for offering interpretations that cannot be proven or disproven?
Which of the following is considered to be the most nondirective form of therapy?
Which of the following is true of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory?
It is an empirically derived test
Which of the following procedures has typically resulted in patients becoming permanently lethargic?
Which of the following refers to a physiological state that usually triggers a state of motivational arousal?
Which of the following statements would most likely appear on a lie scale?
"I never disliked anyone."
Which of the following suggests that the experience of emotion results from an awareness of our own physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event?
Which of the following techniques have behavior therapists used to help people overcome a fear of flying?
virtual reality exposure therapy
Which theory most clearly emphasizes the importance of homeostasis in motivation?
Which theory states that emotion results from the cognitive labeling of our physiological arousal?
Which theory would be most threatened by evidence that highly similar patterns of physiological activity are associated with uniquely different emotional states?
While driving his girlfriend to work, Nate narrowly avoided a collision with another vehicle. Moments later, he experienced an unusually warm glow of affection for his girlfriend. His romantic reaction is best explained in terms of
the two factor theory of emotion
White children are better at recognizing White faces than Black faces. This illustrates
the other-race effect
Who emphasized that slips of the tongue often reveal the personality dynamics that contribute to psychological disorders?