mimic naturally occuring catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine) or stimulate the release of norepinephrine.
Beta 1 adrenergic agonists
Bradycardia, low cardiac output, paroxysmal atrial or nodal tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, cardiac output.
Beta 2 adrenergic agonists
Acute and chronic bronchial asthma, emphysema, bronchitis, acute hypersensitive (allergic) reaction to drugs, delays delivery in premature labor, dysmenorrhea
. Spastic conditions including Parkinson's disease, muscle dystonia, muscle rigidity and extra pyramidal disorders
. Prevent nausea and vomiting from motion sickness, adjunctive treatment for peptic ulcers and other GI disorders, bronchospasms, and GU tract disorders.
. Treat poisoning from certain plants and pesticides.
. Use preoperatively to decrease secretions and block cardiac reflexes.
Anticholinergics adverse reactions
dry mouth, decreased sweating, headache, dilated pupils, blurred vision, dry skin, urinary hesitancy and urine retention, constipation, palpitations and tachycardia; other peripheral effects include dry mucous membranes, dysphasia, stupor, seizures, hyperthermia, hypertension and increased respiration.
Toxic doses: may cause disorientation, confusion, hallucinations, delusions, anxiety, agitation and restlessness.
allergies// pruritis// vertigo, nausea and vomiting// sedation// suppression of cough// dyskinesia
antihistamine adverse reactions/ toxic effects
drowsiness and impaired motor function; anticholinergic action will cause dry mouth and throat, blurred vision, and constipation.
sedation, reduced mental alertness, apnea, cardiovascular collapse, hallucinations, tremors, seizure, dry mouth, flused skin, and fixed & dilated pupils (reverses when drug is withdrawn)
enhance/facilitate actions of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA): reduction of anxiety and tension
reduce the worklad of the heart by blocking the sympathetic conductant at the beta receptors on the SA node and myocardial cells, thus decreasing the force of contraction and causing a reduction in heart rate.
calcium channel blockers
relaxes smooth muscle to provide vasolidation and affects cardiac muslce to reduce HR and SV