US History 10613 TEST #4
Study Guide for Final Exam
Terms in this set (70)
Bataan Death March
The forcible transfer (w/o food & water), by the Japanese Imperial Army, of about 60,000 American and Filipino prisoners to POW camps after the 3 months Battle of Bataan in the Philippines during WWII—thousands died/killed
1st air raid by US on Japan during WWII; boosted US morale; wild plan created by Col. Doolittle; Put a bomber on an aircraft carriers; Took off from the USS Hornet—but were spotted so had to bomb from 100 mi away; Bombed Tokyo and many other cities; Did little damage but killed some; Most planes crashed in China—3 bombers executed, 8 captured by Japanese
Battle of the Coral Sea
Japanese attempt to capture the Solomon Islands; US met them at the Solomon Islands; 1st naval base where fleets didn't see each other, was fought with aircraft carriers; both sides lost an aircraft carrier; neither side won the battle—tactical draw (strategic victory for US)
Battle of Midway
Japanese wanted revenge for Dl's Raid—was going to attack Midway and force the Americans to attack them; Americans knew what the Japanese were planning to do, so they got to Midway first; Stopped expansion of the Japanese Empire; US then goes on the offensive
• Yamamoto: commander of the Japanese; • Admiral Chester Nimitz: American Commander
•US strategy to take islands in between Japan and Australia, and cut the logistic lines (starved other islands)
August 1942—1st big battle in the "island hopping" in the Solomon Islands; essential to stop Japan from getting to Australia; "Last man standing" battle, fought to the death; Allies won
November 1943; Roosevelt, Churchill, Chaing Kai-Shek; was to decide what to do with Japanese occupied territories after the war
Last naval attack by japs; 10 warships set off from japan on a suicide mission (kamikaze) to attack the allied fleets; they were stopped and attacked by us airplanes; 6 of the ships were sunk
Battle of Okinawa
Largest battle of the pacific; wanted to destroy the rest of Japanese merchant marines, and to get closer to the homeland; Okinawa citizens called it "Typhoon of steel"; 180,000 American men sent in, 12,000 killed in action, Japanese lost 100,000; Japanese still refused to surrender; Okinawa's citizens had mass suicides b/c they feared US
J Robert Oppenheimer evolved it, produced the first atomic bombs; One of the best kept secrets (Vice prez Truman didn't know until he took over presidency); Started in 1941; Involved 200,000 people in the US and Canada; Exploded first atomic bomb in New Mexico
Allies decided they would ask for unconditional surrender of Japan
Dropped bomb on Hiroshima—80,000 people died instantly; Japanese refused to surrender still so another bomb was dropped; After the bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, Hirohito finally surrendered; MacArthur helped the Japanese
Permanent changes on the American home front
•Size of federal government increased; •Full acceptance of Keynesian economics; •acceleration of presidency (president grew in power); •centralization of economy; •New deal died—depression ended (WW2—allowed people to spend $$); •populations shift—people moved south because it was wealth; •Civil rights movement began; •Women's movement—entered workforce and army "wasps"
• Based on fear and panic—Americans supported this
• Round up of all Japanese people in USA—locked them in camps to get them away from the West Coast to prevent them from betraying US—all their assets (homes, business, land) were seized and never given back
Yalta Conference 1945
•Stalin, FDR, Churchill--Met to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe
• Yalta Agreement: divided Germany into 4 zones; Germany was disarmed; War criminals tried; Germany forced to pay reparations; Replaced the L.O.N with United Nations
• Gave Soviets more power than anyone else (FDR was criticized for this)
• Soviets promised to join war with Japan (seized Kerill Islands)—wanted to avoid the invasion on Russia
The Cold War
• 1945-1989—US & USSR were at war w/ each other
• Technological race, ideological battle, "arms race"
• Term "The Cold War" coined by Walter Lippmann
• Stalin blamed the Western powers (capitalism) for WWII; Soviets setup communist's government—instead of free elections; Soviet Union never demobilized, biggest land army
George F. Kennan (Mr. X)
• Wrote an anonymous article by "Mr. X" about the Soviet Union
• He recommended the US use the containment policy, (if communism is contained, it will collapse)
• Thought the US could win the cold war if it maintained military strength and resisted communist aggression worldwide
• "Policy of containment"—US would support any nation trying to resist communist control
•1st open resistance to soviets—led to Marshall Plan
• Don't let the communism spread to Greece and Turkey; would financially aid them to help their economy
• If communism is contained, it'll collapse
• Truman adopted it because they didn't want to go to war
• First US open resistance to Soviet aggression, this leads to the Marshall Plan
National Security Act 1947
• Still used today; Set up the current defense structure
• Created the Department of Defense, US Air Force, and the National Security Council (used to advise president on what to do concerning problems)
The Marshall Plan
• Created by George C. Marshall, commander of military overall
• Gave $12-14 billion into Europe to help them rebuild—stopped the spread of communism
• Lead to NATO; Stimulated the US economy as well as providing a market for the US
• Economic response to communism
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
• Militaristic response to communism—defense organization—1st mutual defense treaty
• Created and controlled by the US
• 10 European nations in it when it was created, today there are 26
• Soviet response to NATO
• Alliance of the eastern European countries behind the iron curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czech, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
• These countries were forced to be part of pact—all controlled by the Soviets
• "together we are invincible"
• Soviets blocked the Allies railway and road access to the sectors of Berlin under Allied control.
• Tried to force the western powers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food and fuel, thereby giving the Soviets practical control over the entire city.
•In response, the Western Allies organized the Berlin Airlift to carry supplies to the people in West Berlin.
• 1948-1949 (11 months)—known as the Berlin Airlift
• Allies began an around-the-clock airlift—dropped nearly 2 million tons of supplies/food to West Berliners
• Became a republic in 1920's, very weak
• Mao Zedong was a communist, he controlled the country side
• Chiang Kai-Shek (deemed "good guy" by US) controlled China from Taiwan—more interested in his power rather than fighting Japan. He was not a communist, didn't think democracy would help.
The Korean Conflict
• Korea couldn't decide how to be—so they split into North and South Korea
• Communist North Korea invaded South Korea (surprising the US and UN)
• US went to UN and put a plan in order—led by Douglas MacArthur—his mistake—he wanted to attack China, but they weren't involved
• Commander of US (later allied) forces during WW2, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945
• Leader of UN forces in Korea 1950-51—after threatening to expand the war (wanted full out war in china) when US tried to come up with an agreement with North Korea—Pres. Truman flew to Korea to fire him—was out of control
• Americans loved him. @ first, everyone sided w/ him. Tried to make a 3rd party—was misled by radicals, so he looked dumb.
2nd Red Scare
• Movement in 1950s—brought on by partisan politics; loss of China; turmoil in Eastern Europe; Soviets attained an atom bomb, info was given to them by spies; the people who take over for the Communists in the USSR.
• Republicans were saying that the Democrats were soft on Communism, there were thought to be communist sympathizers
• People feared the Soviet Union/spies
Senator Joseph McCarthy
• In charge of the committee of investigation; went after any suspected communist; made the Red Scare a panic
• He was very powerful; drove George Marshall out of the government
• Two things stopped him: Went after the army (for recruiting his son) and Hollywood for being communists
• Was the author of his own self destruction—died of alcoholism and hepatitis
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
• Spies for the soviets about the atomic bomb
• The only two spies who were executed for this
• It was during the cold war for espionage
• High ranking official in the state department
• Was said to be a communist spy; was tried and convicted of perjury
• Spent 5 years in jail
Election of 1952
• Election between Eisenhower(R) and Stevenson II (D)
• Eisenhower won by landslide—he was extremely competent, used persuasion and mediation
• Truman(D) Administration had a lot of corruption—gave money & great appliances to govt employees who would back them—So Americans trusted Republicans
• He promised to get us out of Korea
• US and USSR were in a "peaceful coexistence" with each other
• Relationship between US and China very tense
• "what is good for the country is good for GM"
• Made new changes to New Deal but kept it from growing
• Cut taxes, increased minimum wages, built housing, built transportation system way
• US wanted to put an organization in the East similar to NATO: South East Asian Treaty (SEATO)
• US, Philippines, Australia, New Zeland, Thailand, Pakistan, France, England. (don't need to know)
• Purpose: prevent spread of communism. 1954—1977 Failed.
Suez Canal Crisis, 1956
• Egypt wanted to control canal
• Great Britain, France, and Israel joined together and attacked Egypt
• None of the countries let the US know what was going on--Eisenhower was livid; feared the Russians would get involved—so Egypt gained control
• Importance: 1. First time colonial nation blew off leaders policies; 2. US & USSR worked toward a common goal of no war; 3. Proved UN could be an effective organization
Promised US intervention on behalf of any Middle East country threatened with a communist take over
The Fifties Culture
• Civil Right movements became started—NAACP became more active
• 1950's had economic prosperity b/c depression ended; U.S. went from work being manual to mental
• Work changed into organization and corporate cooperation than personal competitiveness
• Women's place was in the home—being a housewife was a cult; Conformity increased
• Technology increased—TV was used to advertise
• Created to help returning veterans go to school; passed unanimously
• Effects: created a huge middle class; Population shift—concentration from north east to south west, because this is where the military bases were; aircraft industry
• Blacks continued to immigrate to urban, but moved south west to follow jobs.
Between 1946—1964: the population increased by 40%—veterans came home made babies;
This stimulated jobs and production to supply for everyone.
• Phase one- WWII and cold war Executive order 8802 FEPC double victory S.U. points out lack of civil rights, Desegregation of armed forces,
• Phase two- litigation and supreme court activism desegregation of public schools
Brown vs. Board of Education
• Black girl had to walk across RR tracks to get to her segregated school, but there was a white school a few blocks away
• Her dad went to NAACP—so she could get into a better school
• Court ruled "separate but unequal"
• A department seamstress who lived in Montgomery in 1955. She was a civil rights activist.
• She caught bus after work and sat in the front white section of the bus. She was told to move but refused. She was arrested. Sparked the Montgomery bus boycott
Election of 1960
• Nixon (R)—promised to keep country strong/anticommunist
• JFK (D)—charismatic, inexperienced, unhealthy, Catholic, war hero. Promised to get US rolling again
• Main Issues: JFK's religion; live debates on television; civil rights movement
• Very close election—scandal w/ votes in Chicago—JFK won by 1% of popular vote
• Foreign policy—New Frontier—containment
• Established Peace Corps—2yr term, taught u foreign language, then sent u to foreign country to help
• Developed Alliance for Progress—to help relations with Latin countries
• Famous speech "I am a Berliner."
Bay of Pigs
• CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba, w/ support and encouragement from the US, in attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro.
• Plan developed by CIA—US was to provide air support
• Cubans invaded Cuba & JFK failed to provide the air support
• Huge embarrassment for US and JFK
Cuban Missile Crisis
• Summer 1962; JFK was prepared for this
• Soviet Union began to build missile sites in Cuba b/c US tried to put missiles in Turkey.
• Kennedy invoked the Monroe Doctrine and announced a blockade of Cuba. But blockade=act of war
• Soviets blinked first... so JFK prevailed.
• Feared that if Vietnam fell, all of Indochina would
• JFK agreed to help South Vietnam
• Strategic Hamlet program by Diem: plan by the gov of South Vietnam and US during the war to combat the Communist insurgency by means of population transfer. (Put people in camps for "protection")
JFK's Domestic Affairs
• Raised min wage, increased Social Security, gave money to poor rural areas
• Unsuccessful at providing federal funds to schools, health insurance for the elderly (Medicare)
• Congress was controlled by R's and conservative D's didn't want to expand New Deal
• JFK convinced Congress to give millions to space program, especially after the USSR launched Sputnik
Martin Luther King
• Preached peace/passive resistance
• Gained stature all during the decade of the 50s
• August 1963 in Washington DC "I have a dream speech"
• assassinated in Memphis in 1968 - in response, Congress passed a bill banning discrimination in housing
Lyndon Baines Johnson
President after JFK was assassinated; democrat from Texas; self-made and self-centered; Despised JFK and his administration; greatest ambition was to enforce JFK's domestic policy—war on poverty and civil right
• LBJ enforced JFK's 1964 Civil Rights Act: banned segregation of public facilities—buses, restaurants, theaters
• Banned discrimination in hiring and voting registration
• War on Poverty—poverty went from 20-12%—Welfare fraud was rampant—Expenditures targeted at poor doubled
• Successfully pushed through Medicare, Medicaid, federal funding for education, increases in SS
Wanted to enforce domestic policy; took up where JFK left off; -Successfully pushed through Medicare, Medicaid, federal funding for education, increases in Social Security
• Assassinated by a Muslim rival group.
• Wanted blacks call themselves as African-Americans and take pride in African heritage.
• Converted to Islam in prison; advocated segregation & black supremacy.
• He disavowed racism & advocated black self-determination & self-defense.
• At the time of his death, abandoned the violent, separatist rhetoric—turned to a biracial solution
• LBJ's Civil Rights Act—banned racial segregation of public facilities/discrimination of hiring/voting
• LBJ went from being a moderate on Civil Rights to a strong defender.
• Black Power—blacks turned militant/violent and wanted equality now—Black Panthers
• Between 1964-1968, riots became common—by 1966 "black power" became the new rallying cry.
Election of 1964
• Lyndon B Johnson (D)—faced w/ conservative backlash, sold himself as a moderate
• Barry Goldwater (R)
• Johnson won by a landslide, used this election to push through even more Great Society progressive legislation
LBJ believed in the unlimited power of the US - decided against withdrawal and is best known for his escalation of the Vietnam War, b/c he advocated an independent, non-communist Vietnam as a deterrent to Chinese or Soviet aggression.
Gulf of Tonkin Incident
• August of 1964. LBJ lied—inventing an incident to send more soldiers to sea.
• A US intelligence gathering destroyer was shot by a North Vietnamese torpedo boat. Immediately, US retaliated, sinking or burning the torpedo boats. Another attack was reported 2 days later, but in reality, this didn't happen.
•LBJ, knowing it was not true, went to Congress, and it passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.
• Started after a Viet Cong attack on American barracks in Pleiku & after a series of attacks on US bases
• Biggest bombing campaign of Cold War era, also a dismal failure
• Became regular high altitude B-52 bombing raids lasted for 3 years with 4 objectives:
1. Boost the morale of our South Vietnamese allies
2. Stop North Vietnam from supporting South Vietnam rebels
3. Destroy North Vietnam's ability to fight a war
4. Stop flow of men and material into South Vietnam
• a series of attacks by the Viet Cong
• convinced the American public that we were not winning and moreover we had no reason to keep on fighting
• Excellent example of a tactical failure and a strategic victory
• Victory for communism
Election of 1968
• LBJ doesn't run again
• Hubert Humphrey (D) and the American Party nominates George Wallace
• Richard Nixon (R) — elected on the platform of ending the war, restoring law & order, and bringing the country back together again—got us out of the war "Peace with Honor"
• A gradual withdrawal of American troops and a massive buildup of Vietnamese troops
• US entered secret negotiations with North Vietnam—at the same time opening talks with China and the USSR to try and isolate North Vietnam
• Nixon ordered intensive bombing attacks on Viet Cong hideouts in Cambodia
Election of 1972
• George McGovern (D)—Democrats were radical
• Nixon—in good shape; war was ending, fewer protests, economy was good—reelected w/ 61% of popular vote
• Wage & price freezes, tax cuts, ended the gold drain, 10% import taxes
• Nixon's staff wanted the "inside info" of Dems, broke into the Watergate Hotel—Dem Headquarters
• Caught with listening devices, cameras—money traced back to the Committee to reelect prez
• Nixon didn't know about it but tried to cover it up—destroyed evidence
• House voted on 3 articles of impeachment - obstruction of justice, abuse of power; contempt of Congress
• Nixon resigns
Gerald R. Ford
• 1st president who wasn't elected to either the VP or P
• Domestic Affairs: problems inherited from Nixon—Inflation, unemployment, 1st energy crisis (reached agreement on a new energy policy--helped economy recover by 1976)
• Foreign Affairs: Same foreign policies as Nixon—ordered the evacuation of all Americans and friends of US in Vietnam
Election of 1976
• Gerald Ford(R)—pardon Nixon, which angered Americans
• Jimmy Carter (D)—campaigned on his inexperience and lack of political experience, 1-term gov of Georgia, revived the New Deal coalition of southern whites, urban labor, blacks, and ethnic groups—WON
• Problems—low voter turnout; cynicism over Watergate & an economy in the doldrums
• Economy in recession; foreign affairs—very low ebb as a result of the failure in Vietnam
• Success: pardoned thousands of draft dodgers; created a super-fund to clean up industrial pollution) •
• Problems: energy crisis—he increased domestic oil production by 1 million barrels a day; he gave the malaise speech—his popularity declined
• Achievement: Camp David Accord—peace between Egypt & Israel
Election of 1980
• Carter was challenged by Ted Kennedy (D)—Kennedy lost—led to a nasty Democratic Convention
• Ronald Reagan(R)—the great communicator; ran on supply side economics - lower taxes to grow the economy—won easily
• Greatest accomplishment was to bring down the Soviet Union
• embarked the US on a massive military build-up, spending spree—USSR couldn't keep up with them
• Domestic goals—revitalize economy, cut taxes, balance federal budget, & cut the size/scope of federal government
• Left office after 8 years w/ greatest approval ratings since FDR—restored faith in Americans
Fall of the Berlin Wall
• 1989 - Beginning of the fall of communism and the Soviet Union - symbolized the failure of communism and massive socialism
• Reagan—Spoke to the lenient head soviet leader, challenged him to tear down wall—w/in 1 year wall was down—he's most remembered for speech in front of the wall.