58 terms

# 6th Grade Science Study Guide

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hypothesis
An educated guess that attempts to explain an observation or answer a question
infer
guess correctly, to find out by reasoning; to arrive at a conclusion on the basis of thought; to hint, suggest, imply
controlled experiment
experiment that tests the effect of a single variable
variable
something in an experiment that can change
independent variable
variable that is changed in an experiment
dependent variable
the variable that is measured in an experiment
constant
variable that is not changed in an experiment
critical thinking
Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions
data
the information gathered from observations.
Earth science
The study of earth and space; includes geology, meteorology, astronomy, and oceanography
life science
The study of living things
model
represents an idea, event, or object to help people better understand it
physical science
the study of matter and energy
science
the study of the natural world
scientific law
A theory that has been tested by and is consistent with generations of data
scientific theory
A well tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
system
an organized group of parts that work together to form a whole
technology
tools and skills people use to meet their basic needs
measurement
a quantity that has both a number and a unit
precision
the exactness of a measurement
accuracy
How close a measurement is to the true value
description
an explanation of an observation
SI
the international system of units
meter
The basic SI unit of length
volume
the amount of space an object takes up
mass
the amount of matter in an object
kilogram
SI unit for mass, one thousand grams
weight
the vertical force exerted by a mass as a result of gravity
kelvin
SI unit for temperature, - fundamental SI unit of temperature where zero degrees Kelvin is equal to absolute zero.
rate
amount of change of one measurement in a given amount of time
table
a set of data arranged in rows and columns
graph
A diagram that shows how two variables are related.
line graph
shows the relationship between two variables, shows change over time
bar graph
a graph that uses horizontal or vertical bars to display data
circle graph
A graph of data where the entire circle represents the whole or 100%, shows parts of a whole
estimation
method of making an educated guess at a measurement, An approximate calculation of quantity
J.J. Thompson
used the cathode ray tube to discover the electron
Lavoisier
(1743-1794) father of modern chemistry - co discovered oxygen and hydrogen, introduced metric system, invented first periodic table. Beheaded in French Revolution
Ernest Rutherford
British physicist discovered the nucleus, gold foil experiment- fired negative ions at thin sheet of gold foil, some particles were deflected almost as if it hit something solid
discovered the neutron, introduced Law of Conservation of Matter
John Dalton
discovered the atomic theory, or the idea that everything was made up of atoms, created first model of the atom
Periodic Table of Elements
the scientific chart that contains an arrangement of all known elements into a particular order based upon the number of protons and other properties of each element.
How many known elements in the Periodic Table of Elements
115
How many elements in the Periodic Table of Elements are naturally occuring
90
Metals
elements on the periodic table with high luster, good electrical conductivity, malleability, and loosely held valence electrons.
Non-Metals
elements on the periodic table that are usually dull in appearance, poor conductors of heat and electricity, gases at room temperature
Transitional metals
elements on the periodic table that are used because they have high melting points and are hard.
Semi-metals
elements on the periodic table that have properties of both metals and nonmetals
Noble gases
non-metallic elements on the periodic table which contain the most stable and nonreactive elements (also called the inert gases because they do not participate in many chemical reactions)
Atomic Number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Atomic Mass
total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in atomic mass units
Chemical Symbol
a one or two letter representation of an element, the abbreviation for the name of an element
Number of protons
equals number of electrons
Number of neutrons
Mass number - atomic number
Number of electrons
equals the number of protons
Matter
that which has mass and occupies space
Atoms
the smallest unit of matter that has the characteristics of an element; consists of three main types of subatomic particles: protons neutrons and electrons.
Elements
a molecule composed of one kind of atom; cannot be broken into simpler units by chemical reactions.