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Final Ancient Greece Terms

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pentekontaetia
the "golden age" of Athens; a 50 year period of peace and prosperity between the end of the second Persian invasion of Greece (479 BC) and the Peloponnesian War (431 BC)
trireme
ancient naval vessel and a type if galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean; characterized by three rows of oars
Long Walls
walls that connected Athens to its port of Piraeus; significant in allowing Athens to survive during the first part of the Peloponnesian War, called the "Archidamian War"
Erechtheum
ancient Greek temple on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens in Greece which was dedicated to both Athena and Poseidon
caryatid
a sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support taking the place of a column or a pillar supporting an entablature on here head
sophist
teachers of rhetoric and philosophy that usually educated statesman on public speaking/many people criticized them for being skeptical and questioning the world around them
ananke
in Thucydides, this idea is the biggest power or principle that governs history, decision making, and the affairs of men
tyche
kinds of things in war you can't predict; deity that governed the future or prosperity of a city
ekklesia
principle assembly of the democracy of Athens; consisted of all male citizens who would meet about every ten days and vote on legislation approved by the boule
stasis
defined by Thucydides as a set of symptoms indicating an internal disturbance in both individuals and states; "setting apart"
Archidamian War
(431-421 BC) This was the first part of the Peloponnesian War. Spartan strategy was to invade the land surrounding Athens, which failed because Athens had access to its port because it was connected with the long walls
strategos
military generals (usually also politicians); held accountable for their decisions and watched by the Athenians
demagogue
"people leader"; a political leader who seeks support by appealing to popular desires and prejudices rather than by using rational argument
limos
famine
loimos
plague
cleon
Athenian statesman and strategos during the Peloponnesian War; represented as a warmonger and demagogue
diodotus
opposed Cleon's proposal of killing all adult Mytilenean males and enslave their women and children; represented a more moderate faction of Athens
Mytilenian debate
occurred in Athens in 427 BC during the Peloponnesian War. Occurred after the assembly ordered to execute and enslave the rebellious Mytileneans. Cleon was in favor of the original decision while diodotus urged to spare the mytileneans in favor or creating an alliance. Diodotus' argument prevailed
sphatacteria
a small island at the entrance of the bay of Pylos, in the Peloponnese. Site of the 425 BC Battle of Sphacteria in the Peloponnesian War
melos
greek island in the Aegean sea, attacked by Athens in 416 BC for refusing to pay tribute and refusing to join Athens' alliance against Sparta. Athens eventually took the city, execute all adult males, and enslaves their women and children
stichomythia
a technique in verse drama in which single, alternating lines (or half lines or pairs of lines) are given to alternating character
Nicias
Athenian politician and general during the Peloponnesian War. Moderate political views and encourage peace with Sparta; largely responsible for the Peace of Nicias in 421 BC. As a general, he led many expeditions but achieved little
Alcibiades
strategic advisor, general and politician during the Peloponnesian War. Opposed peace and argued for Athens to continue its war with Sparta and allies and invade Sicily
herm
a sculpture with a head, and perhaps a torso, above a plain, usually squared lower section on which male genitals carved; wards off evil spirits. Alcibiades was accused of defacing herms in Athens and was recalled from Syracuse, causing him to side with the Spartans
Brauron
sacred site of Artemis located on the eastern coast of Attica near the Aegean Sea; where Pisistratus was born
loom
a device to weave cloth
spindle/spindle whorl
disc or spherical object fitted onto the spindle to increase and maintain the speed of the spin; spins fibers into yarn
pinax
a votive tablet of painted wood, terracotta, marble or bronze that served as a votive object in a sanctuary or as a memorial object in a burial chamber
thesmorphia
festival in honor of Demeter and Persephone; participation solely by women
fumigation
a method in which a women would sit on a pot of warm vapors to "fumigate" the female reproductive system and cure illnesses; Hippocrates wrote about this
anatomical votive
terracotta clay cast of body parts that one would dedicate at a temple in the hopes of healing that body part
pastas
element of Ancient Greece houses; ran along one side of the courtyard, the pastas provided a space for work and socializing, but also provided shelter from sun and rain
Olynthis
an ancient city of Chalcidice
hetaera
ancient Greek women courtesans who were highly educated and sophisticated; hired as companions at parties and other social events
porne
prostitute hired for symposiums
andron
part of a Greek house reserved for men, usually highly decorated and was the location of the symposium and located at the front of the home to prevent other men from entering the rest of the home
eromenos
"object of love"; younger boy in a pederast relationship. Plays the "passive" role
erastes
the older lover in a pederast relationship; "the one who loves"; pursues a young boy as an object of love and builds a social status for and mentors the young boy. Plays the "dominant" role
kalos inscriptions
"beautiful"; placed on attic vases that portrayed young boys either being courted or participating in athletic events
city dionysia
a festival in the spring in honor of Dionysus; central events were the theatrical performances of tragedies and comedies
satyr
a man with goat-like features in Greek mythology and comedies
liturgy
a public service established by the city-state where the richest members financed the state with their personal wealth, managed financing of the theatrical chorus, a public duty that was required
Old Comedy
first period of Ancient Greek comedy characterized by political satire and sexual innuendo
New Comedy
accurate picture of life, less satirical, and more about the experiences of ordinary man
obol
ancient Athenian silver coin; paid 3 for jury duty
pinakion
a small bronze plate used to identify a citizen of a city; given to jurors and used in the jury process with the kleroterion to prevent jurors from being impersonated
Klepsydra
a water clock for timing speeches in court
kleroterion
a randomization device used to select citizens to the boule and other state or judicial officers; slab of stone incised with roes of slots and an attached tube
apotympanismos
a form of crucifixion, apotympanismos is a method of execution where the convicted individual is hung on a board and left to die by suffocation through the weight of his own body, thirst, and exhaustion
hemlock
used to poison condemned prisoners; personal suicide, used for Socrates' execution
elenchos
"refutation" (socratic method) a form of inquiry and discussion between individuals, based on asking questions of the heroic aristocratic tradition
to kalon/to agathon
"the good and the noble"; the expression used in ancient Greek to refer to the most highly prized qualities of the heroic aristocratic tradition
Corinthian order
the most ornate of the architectural order, characterized by slender, fluted columns and elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
huge building with Eastern and Greek motifs in honor of the non-Greek king Mausolus
Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidauros
an extremely popular sanctuary of Asklepios; ill people went here in hope of being cured by sleeping a night in the hall and a god would advise them in their dreams on how to get their health back
tholos
a circular temple of ancient Greece; sometimes used as a personal monument
S-curve
describes the stature of statues in the 4th century BC; assumed to have been developed by Praxiteles and made statues more lifelike than ever
Larnax
a type of small closed coffin, used as a container for human remains, either a body or cremated ashes
skopas
ancient greek sculptor and architect who worked with Praxiteles and sculpted reliefs on the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus; style characterized with deep set eyes and a slightly open mouth; one of the three great sculptors of 4th century Greece
lysippos
principle sculptor of portraits of Alexander; one of the three great sculptors of the 4th century
apoxyomenos
sculpture representing an athlete scraping sweat and dust from hid body with a small curved instrument, made by Lysippos
anastole
alexander's hairstyle, split with the center brushed up, used to identify him and make him a brand
sarissa
4-7m long spear used in Hellenistic warfare