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the "golden age" of Athens; a 50 year period of peace and prosperity between the end of the second Persian invasion of Greece (479 BC) and the Peloponnesian War (431 BC)


ancient naval vessel and a type if galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean; characterized by three rows of oars

Long Walls

walls that connected Athens to its port of Piraeus; significant in allowing Athens to survive during the first part of the Peloponnesian War, called the "Archidamian War"


ancient Greek temple on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens in Greece which was dedicated to both Athena and Poseidon


a sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support taking the place of a column or a pillar supporting an entablature on here head


teachers of rhetoric and philosophy that usually educated statesman on public speaking/many people criticized them for being skeptical and questioning the world around them


in Thucydides, this idea is the biggest power or principle that governs history, decision making, and the affairs of men


kinds of things in war you can't predict; deity that governed the future or prosperity of a city


principle assembly of the democracy of Athens; consisted of all male citizens who would meet about every ten days and vote on legislation approved by the boule


defined by Thucydides as a set of symptoms indicating an internal disturbance in both individuals and states; "setting apart"

Archidamian War

(431-421 BC) This was the first part of the Peloponnesian War. Spartan strategy was to invade the land surrounding Athens, which failed because Athens had access to its port because it was connected with the long walls


military generals (usually also politicians); held accountable for their decisions and watched by the Athenians


"people leader"; a political leader who seeks support by appealing to popular desires and prejudices rather than by using rational argument






Athenian statesman and strategos during the Peloponnesian War; represented as a warmonger and demagogue


opposed Cleon's proposal of killing all adult Mytilenean males and enslave their women and children; represented a more moderate faction of Athens

Mytilenian debate

occurred in Athens in 427 BC during the Peloponnesian War. Occurred after the assembly ordered to execute and enslave the rebellious Mytileneans. Cleon was in favor of the original decision while diodotus urged to spare the mytileneans in favor or creating an alliance. Diodotus' argument prevailed


a small island at the entrance of the bay of Pylos, in the Peloponnese. Site of the 425 BC Battle of Sphacteria in the Peloponnesian War


greek island in the Aegean sea, attacked by Athens in 416 BC for refusing to pay tribute and refusing to join Athens' alliance against Sparta. Athens eventually took the city, execute all adult males, and enslaves their women and children


a technique in verse drama in which single, alternating lines (or half lines or pairs of lines) are given to alternating character


Athenian politician and general during the Peloponnesian War. Moderate political views and encourage peace with Sparta; largely responsible for the Peace of Nicias in 421 BC. As a general, he led many expeditions but achieved little


strategic advisor, general and politician during the Peloponnesian War. Opposed peace and argued for Athens to continue its war with Sparta and allies and invade Sicily


a sculpture with a head, and perhaps a torso, above a plain, usually squared lower section on which male genitals carved; wards off evil spirits. Alcibiades was accused of defacing herms in Athens and was recalled from Syracuse, causing him to side with the Spartans


sacred site of Artemis located on the eastern coast of Attica near the Aegean Sea; where Pisistratus was born


a device to weave cloth

spindle/spindle whorl

disc or spherical object fitted onto the spindle to increase and maintain the speed of the spin; spins fibers into yarn


a votive tablet of painted wood, terracotta, marble or bronze that served as a votive object in a sanctuary or as a memorial object in a burial chamber


festival in honor of Demeter and Persephone; participation solely by women


a method in which a women would sit on a pot of warm vapors to "fumigate" the female reproductive system and cure illnesses; Hippocrates wrote about this

anatomical votive

terracotta clay cast of body parts that one would dedicate at a temple in the hopes of healing that body part


element of Ancient Greece houses; ran along one side of the courtyard, the pastas provided a space for work and socializing, but also provided shelter from sun and rain


an ancient city of Chalcidice


ancient Greek women courtesans who were highly educated and sophisticated; hired as companions at parties and other social events


prostitute hired for symposiums


part of a Greek house reserved for men, usually highly decorated and was the location of the symposium and located at the front of the home to prevent other men from entering the rest of the home


"object of love"; younger boy in a pederast relationship. Plays the "passive" role


the older lover in a pederast relationship; "the one who loves"; pursues a young boy as an object of love and builds a social status for and mentors the young boy. Plays the "dominant" role

kalos inscriptions

"beautiful"; placed on attic vases that portrayed young boys either being courted or participating in athletic events

city dionysia

a festival in the spring in honor of Dionysus; central events were the theatrical performances of tragedies and comedies


a man with goat-like features in Greek mythology and comedies


a public service established by the city-state where the richest members financed the state with their personal wealth, managed financing of the theatrical chorus, a public duty that was required

Old Comedy

first period of Ancient Greek comedy characterized by political satire and sexual innuendo

New Comedy

accurate picture of life, less satirical, and more about the experiences of ordinary man


ancient Athenian silver coin; paid 3 for jury duty


a small bronze plate used to identify a citizen of a city; given to jurors and used in the jury process with the kleroterion to prevent jurors from being impersonated


a water clock for timing speeches in court


a randomization device used to select citizens to the boule and other state or judicial officers; slab of stone incised with roes of slots and an attached tube


a form of crucifixion, apotympanismos is a method of execution where the convicted individual is hung on a board and left to die by suffocation through the weight of his own body, thirst, and exhaustion


used to poison condemned prisoners; personal suicide, used for Socrates' execution


"refutation" (socratic method) a form of inquiry and discussion between individuals, based on asking questions of the heroic aristocratic tradition

to kalon/to agathon

"the good and the noble"; the expression used in ancient Greek to refer to the most highly prized qualities of the heroic aristocratic tradition

Corinthian order

the most ornate of the architectural order, characterized by slender, fluted columns and elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls

Mausoleum at Halicarnassus

huge building with Eastern and Greek motifs in honor of the non-Greek king Mausolus

Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidauros

an extremely popular sanctuary of Asklepios; ill people went here in hope of being cured by sleeping a night in the hall and a god would advise them in their dreams on how to get their health back


a circular temple of ancient Greece; sometimes used as a personal monument


describes the stature of statues in the 4th century BC; assumed to have been developed by Praxiteles and made statues more lifelike than ever


a type of small closed coffin, used as a container for human remains, either a body or cremated ashes


ancient greek sculptor and architect who worked with Praxiteles and sculpted reliefs on the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus; style characterized with deep set eyes and a slightly open mouth; one of the three great sculptors of 4th century Greece


principle sculptor of portraits of Alexander; one of the three great sculptors of the 4th century


sculpture representing an athlete scraping sweat and dust from hid body with a small curved instrument, made by Lysippos


alexander's hairstyle, split with the center brushed up, used to identify him and make him a brand


4-7m long spear used in Hellenistic warfare

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