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SAFe (Scaled Agile Framework)
Terms in this set (177)
SAFe for Lean Enterprises
A scalable and configurable framework
that helps organizations deliver new products, services, and solutions in the shortest sustainable
lead time, with the best possible quality and value
Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe)
- A freely revealed knowledge base of integrated, proven patterns for enterprise Lean-Agile development
- Synchronizes alignment, collaboration, and delivery for large number of teams
Core values of SAFe (4)
1. Built-in Quality
2. Program execution
- Empowered, self-organizing, self-managing, cross-functional team/entities that can define, build, and test a feature/component
- Optimized for communication & delivery of value
An Agile team delivers valuable, tested, working system every _____
(1) Scrum project management
(2) XP-inspired technical practices
A team uses a team framework w/c combines the best of Scrum (1)_____, (2)_____ and (3)_____ for flow
Team of Agile Teams
- Self-organizing and self-managing
- Delivers working, tested full system increments every 2 weeks
- Operates with vision, architecture, and UX guidance
- Common iteration lengths and estimating
- Face-to-face planning for collaboration, alignment and adaptation
SAFe train configurations (4)
2. Large Solution
_____ SAFe provides the basis for success. It provides the minimal elements necessary. (configuration)
_____ SAFe adds Lean Portfolio governance (configuration);
provides portfolio strategy and investment funding, Agile portfolio operations, & Lean gevrnance.
_____ SAFe is coordinated by a Solution Train. It is for enterprises that are building large and complex solutions, wc do not require the constructs of the portfolio level
_____ SAFe represents the most comprehensive configuration. It supports building large, integrated solutions that typically require hundreds of people or more to develop & maintain.
[T/F] Some enterprises require Full SAFe
4 Levels of SAFe
3. Large Solution
Get business results in _____ (4)
1. Engagement (10-50% happier, more motivated employees)
2. Time-to-market (30-75% faster)
3. Quality (25-75% defect reduction)
4. Productivity (20-50% increase)
The combination of beliefs, assumptions, and actions of SAFe leaders and practitioners who embrace the concepts of the Agile Manifesto and Lean thinking.
It's the personal, intellectual and leadership foundation for adopting and applying SAFe's principles and practices.
Two primary aspects of a Lean-Agile mindset
1. Thinking Lean
2. Embracing agility
The SAFe House of Lean
Value and Leadership supported by the pillars of Respect for people & culture, flow, innovation and relentless improvement.
Goal of the SAFe House of Lean
- Deliver the maximum customer value in the shortest sustainable lead time while providing the highest possible quality to Customers and society as a whole.
Addt'l goals & benefits: high morale, safety, customer delight)
Respect for people and culture
- People do all the work
- Your customer is whoever consumes your work
- Build long-term partnerships based on trust
- Cultural change comes last, not first
- To change the culture, you have to change the organization
- Optimize continuous & sustainable throughput of value
- Avoid start-stop-start project delays
- Build quality in; flow depends on it
- Understand, exploit, and manage variability
- Integrate frequently
- Use informed-decision making via fast feedback
- Producers innovate; customers validate
- Get out of the office (Gemba*)
- Provide time and space for creativity
- e.g. IP iteration
- Apply innovation accounting
- Pivot without mercy or guilt
- A constant sense of danger
- Optimize the whole
- Consider facts carefully, then act quickly
- Apply lean tools to identify & address root causes
- Reflect at key milestones; identify & address shortcomings
(Management applies & teaches Lean thinking, bases decisions on this long-term philosophy.)
Foundation of House of Lean
- Lead the change
- Know the way; emphasize life-long learning
- Develop people
- Inspire and align with mission; minimize constraints
- Decentralize decision-making
- Unlock the intrinsic motivation of knowledge workers
The Agile Manifesto
- "Individuals and interactions" over processes and tools
- "Working software" over comprehensive documentation
- "Customer collaboration" over contract negotiation
- "Responding to change" over following a plan
Principles of the Agile Manifesto
1. Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early & continuous delivery of valuable software.
2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage.
3. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale.
4. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project.
5. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, & trust them to get the job done.
6. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.
7. Working software is the primary measure of progress.
8. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely.
9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.
10. Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential.
11. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.
12. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.
- Agile Teams show that 'dates' matter and they 'meet' their commitments
- Business Owners understand how 'priorities' matter
- Fix 'quality', not scope
[T/F] Agile turns development upside-down
SAFe Lean-Agile Principles (9 total)
1. Take an economic view
2. Apply systems thinking
3. Assume variability; preserve options
4. Build incrementally with fast, integrated learning cycles
5. Base milestones on objective evaluation of working systems
6. Visualize and limit WIP, reduce batch sizes, & manage queue lengths
7. Apply cadence, synchronize with cross-domain planning
8. Unlock the intrinsic motivation of knowledge workers
9. Decentralize decision-making
#4 Build incrementally with fast, integrated learning cycles
Use iterations and Program increments to learn fast
#5 Base milestones on objective evaluation of working systems
- Phase gates force too-early design decisions, encourage false-positive feasibility
- Assume a "point" Solution exists and can be built right the first time
Facilitates learning and allow for continuous, cost-effective adjustments toward an optimum Solution
#6 Visualize and limit WIP, reduce batch sizes, and manage queue lengths
- Understand Little's Law
- Faster processing time decreases wait
- Control wait times by controlling queue lengths
Wq (ave wait time) = Lq (ave queue) / r (item rate)
Visualize and limit work in progress
1: make the current WIP visible to all stakeholders
2: balance the amount of WIP against the available development capacity
* BVIR - Big Visible Information Radiator
* Limiting WIP requires knowledge, discipline and commitment
Reduce Batch Size
- Small batches go through the system faster, with lower variability and risk
- Large batch sizes and high utilization increase variability, causing project slippage
- Most important batch - transport (handoff) batch
- Co-location (proximity) and good infrastructure enable small batches
- The seminal principle of queuing theory
- the wait time for service from a system equals the ration of queue length divided by the average processing rate (the longer the queue, the longer the wait)
#7 Apply cadence, synchronize with cross-domain planning
Control variability with planning cadence.
Cadence-based planning limits variability to a single interval.
#8 Unlock the intrinsic motivation of knowledge workers
- Leverage the systems view
- Understand the role of compensation
- Provide autonomy with purpose, mission, & minimum possible constraints
- Create an environment of mutual influence
From traditional development to Agile
Instead of a large group working on all the requirements + integrating and delivering value toward the end of development...
Have small teams working together as a program working on small batches of requirements + delivering value in short timeboxes w/ frequent integration and improvement cycles
3 roles in Scrum Agile Teams
1. Development team
2. Scrum Master
3. Product Owner
4 meetings in Scrum Agile
1. iteration Planning
2. Daily Stand-up
3. Iteration Review
4. Iteration Retrospective
A visual information system that controls the flow of work
"visualize work flow. Limit work in process. Improve flow"
_____ practices drive endemic code quality to unprecedented levels
- Test-Drive Development
- Collective Ownership
- Coding Standards
- Automated Testing
- Simple Design
- Pair Programming
- Continuous Integration
- User Stories
- Critical for the team to be effective
- Recommended for programs to have efficient product development flow
- Distributed development must be compensated w/ efficient remote interaction
- Creates and refines user stories & acceptance criteria
- Defines/builds/tests/delivers Stories
- Develops & commits to Team PI Objectives and Iteration plans
- Defines and accepts Stories/requirements
- Acts as the Customer for developer questions
- Works w/ Product Management to plan Releases
(A Product Owner can be dedicated to only 1 or 2 teams.)
[T/F] A team has only 1 Product Owner, who can be dedicated to any number of teams.
- Runs team meetings, coaches Agile mindset & practices
- Removes impediments, protects the team from outside influence
- Attends Scrum of Scrum meetings
2 to 3
A Scrum master can have a part-time role for a team member (25-50%), or a single scrum master may be shared across _____ teams.
A special agile team that provides processes and tools to integrate and evaluate assets early and often
- Builds the development infrastructure & manages environments
- Assists w/ test automation strategies & adoption
- Provides/supports full system integration
- Performs end-to-end system & performance testing
A System Team stages and supports the _____.
Organize for the larger purpose
Maximize velocity by minimizing dependencies & handoffs, while sustaining architectural robustness and system qualities
Features and Components
A team can be organized around _____.
Lean toward _____:
- faster velocity
- minimize dependencies
- develop T-shaped skills
Use _____ when:
- high reuse, high technical specialization, critical NFRs
- creating each component as a "potentially replaceable part of the system, w/ well-defined interfaces"
(avoid organizing around arch. layers as they create team coupling and don't provide a technical separation of concerns)
[T/F] Find the right-trade of by generally organizing around architectural layers
Scrum Master (2)
- Coaches the team
- Ensures that the team follows Agile principles & practices
- Facilitates processes & meetings
Scrum Master in the Enterprise
- Coordinates w/ other SMs, the System Team, & shared resources in the ART PI Planning meetings
- Works w/ the above teams throughout each Iteration and PI
- Coordinates w/ other SMs & the Release Train Engineer in Scrum of Scrums
- Fosters normalized estimating w/in the team
- Helps teams operate under architectural & portfolio governance, System Level integration, & System Demos
- Fosters adoption of Agile technical practices
Product Owner (2)
- Member of the Agile Team
- A single voice for the Customer and stakeholders
- Owns and manages the Team Backlog
- Makes the hard calls on scope and content
Product Owner in the Enterprise
- Establishes the sequence of backlog items based on program priorities, events, & dependencies w/ other teams
- Operates as part of an extended Product Management Team, usually reporting via a "fat dotted line"
- Understands how the Enterprise Backlog Model operates w/ Epics, Capabilities, Features & Stories
- Uses PI Objectives & Iteration Goals to communicate w/ management
- Coordinates w/ other POs, the System Team, & shared services in the PI Planning meetings
- Works w/ other POs & the Product Management team throughout each Iteration & PI
Agile Release Train (ART)
A long-lived team of Agile Teams, which, along with stakeholders, develops and delivers solutions incrementally using a series of fixed-length Iterations w/in a Program Increment timebox.
The ART aligns teams to a common business & technology mission. It provides for a regular cadence for planning, development, and retrospective. Trains provide continuous product development flow and each train has the dedicated resources necessary to continuously define, build, and test valuable and evaluate-able capabilities every 2 weeks.
Program Increment (PI) for an Agile Release Train is a fixed time box; default is _____ weeks.
Agile Release Train
- Synchronized Iterations & PIs
- Aligned to a common mission via a single Program Backlog
- Operates under architectural & UX guidance
- Frequently produces valuable & evaluable System Level Solutions
(1) 5 - 12
(2) 50 - 125+
An Agile Release Train is a virtual organization of (1)_____ teams (composed of (2)_____ individuals)
These ART roles help ensure successful execution of the Vision & Roadmap initiatives at the Program Level (3)
1. Release Train Engineer
2. Product Management
3. System Architect/Engineer
Release Train Engineer
A servant leader who facilitates and guides the work of the ART. He acts like a chief Scrum Master
The main content authority guiding the train. They own & prioritize the Program Backlog.
Has the technical responsibility for the overall architectural & engineering design of the system. She provides architectural & technical guidance to the teams on the train.
- An industry-standard term familiar to marketing & Product Management; It is expressed as a phrase
- Identified, prioritized, estimated, & maintained in the Program Backlog
_____ are services that fulfill user needs.
Features have benefits and acceptance criteria
- Benefit hypothesis justifies Feature implementation cost & provides business perspective when making scope decisions
- Business benefits impact economic prioritization of the Feature
- Acceptance criteria is typically defined during Program Backlog refinement
- Reflect functional & nonfunctional requirements
- Contains all the work the team needs to work on
- Created by the PO and the team & prioritized by the PO
- Contains User and Enabler Stories
_____ in the backlog are prioritized. _____ for the next iteration are more detailed than the one for later Iterations
Nonfunctional requirements (NFRs)
Constraints on the backlog
- Containers for user or Customer value
- Written using the following template:
As a <user role> I want <activity> so that <business value>
description of the person doing the action
why they want to do the activity
what they can do with the system
User Story guidelines (The 3 Cs)
Card - written here or in the tool and may annotate w/ notes
Conversation - the details are in here with the PO
Confirmation - Acceptance criteria confirm the story correctness
INVEST in a good story
I - independent
N - negotiable
V - valuable
E - estimable
S - small
T - testable
They build the infrastructure & architectures that makes user stories possible; builds the groundwork for future user stories
4 types of Enabler Stories
Build development and testing frameworks that enable a faster & more efficient development process
Build the architectural Runway, which enables smoother and faster development
Build understanding of what is needed by the customer, to understand prospective solutions and evaluate alternatives
Facilitate specific activities such as Verification & Validation, documentation, signoffs, regulatory submissions and approvals
Techniques for splitting Features & Stories to fit w/in their boundaries (PI & Iteration, respectively)
1. Work flow steps
2. Business rule variations
3. Major effort
5. Variations in data
6. Data methods
7. Defer system qualities
9. Use-case scenarios
10. Break out a spike
- provides the details of the Story from a testing point of view
- created by the Team and the PO
- It is a singular number that represents volume, complexity, knowledge, & uncertainty.
- Stories should be estimated relative to this.
[T/F] Story points are relative; they are not connected to any specific unit of measure
This combines expert opinion, analogy, and disaggregation for quick but reliable estimates.
Apply this for fast, relative estimating.
Which team members should participate in Estimating Poker?
Steps in Estimating Poker
1. Each estimator gets a deck of cards
2. Reads a job
3. Estimators privately select cards
4. Cards are turned over
5. Discuss differences
It is a whole-team exercise.
- Increases accuracy by including all perspectives
- Builds understanding
- Creates shared commitment
False (it negates the benefits)
[T/F] Estimation performed by a manager, architect, or select group improves these benefits.
Time spent in estimating
A little effort helps a lot. A lot of effort only helps a little.
Primary economic prioritization happens at the _____
Agile Teams sequence work for efficient execution of business priorities.
The PO and the Team sequence work based on:
- Story priorities inherited from Program Backlog priorities
- Events, Milestones, releases, & other commitments made during PI Planning
- Dependencies w/ other teams
- Local priorities
- Capacity allocations for defects, maintenance, & refactors
Initial sequencing happens during _____
Adjustments happen at _____
- By having this defined, the PO doesn't need to prioritize unlike things against each other.
- Once this is set, the PO and team can prioritize like things against each other
- It is for a healthy balance
Notes in capacity allocation
- Helps alleviate velocity degradation due to technical debt
- Keeps existing Customers happy w/ bug fixes & enhancements
- Can change at Iteration or PI boundaries
4 steps of plan and commit
4. Reciprocal commitment
Define and commit to what will be built in the Iteration
- The PO defines "what"
- The team defines "how" and "how much"
- 4 hours max
Iteration Goals and backlog of the team's commitment
- Team commits to delivering specific value
- business commits to leaving priorities unchanged during the Iteration
- This meeting is by and for the team
- SMEs may attend as required
Iteration Planning flow
1. The team establishes its velocity
2. The team clarifies & estimates the Stories
3. The team optionally breaks Stories into tasks
4. The process continues while there is more capacity
5. The team synthesizes Iteration Goals
6. Everyone commits
Using size to estimate duration
Establish velocity by looking at the average output of the last Iterations:
size -> velocity -> duration
Establishing velocity before historical data exists
Normalized Story point estimating provides the economic basis for estimating work within and across programs
They provide clarity, commitment, and management information
Purpose of Iteration Goals
1. Align team members to a common purpose
2. Align Program Teams to common PI Objectives and manage dependencies
3. Provide continuous management information
Story analysis & estimation
- The PO presents Stories in order of priority
- Each Story:
* is discussed & analyzed by the team
* has its acceptance criteria
* is estimated
- The process continues until the estimation of the Stories has reached the velocity of the team
Ways for a team to commit to the Iteration Goals
- By doing everything they said they would do OR
- In the event that it's not feasible, they must immediately raise a red flag
[T/F] Team commitments are not just the work. They are committed to other teams, the program, and the stakeholders.
Too much holding to a _____ can lead to burnout, inflexibility, & quality problems
Too little commitment can lead to unpredictability and lack of focus on results
- These teams find less value in trying to plan the iteration in detail
- They still publish Iteration Goals, w/c consist of the known parts of their work
- They commit to the goals as well as to a cycle time SLA for incoming work based on their known historical data
(maintenance teams, System Teams, DevOps are a more responsive team)
Kanban Teams have a more responsive nature to their work
Limiting Work in Progress so that the team maintains focus on completing work, maintaining quality, and delivering value.
Track status with _____ (e.g. burn-up, CFDs)
Cumulative Flow Diagram (CFD)
A chart that displays the status of the team by showing feature backlogs, work-in-progress, and completed features over time
Benefits of building quality in(to work)
- Ensures that every increment of the Solution reflects quality standards
- Required for high, sustainable development velocity
- Software quality practices (most inspired by XP) include CI, Test-First, refactoring, pair work, collective ownership, and more
- Hardware quality is supported by exploratory, early Iterations; frequent system-level integration; design verification; MBSE; & Set-Based Design
Teams grow the system design as user stories require
Fosters team alignment and defines Architectural runway
[T/F] A balance between emergent design & intentional architecture is required for speed of development and maintainability
- It is existing code, hardware components, etc. that technically enable near-term business features.
- must be continuously maintained
they build up the runway
they consume the runway
- A percentage of train's overall capacity in a PI
- Use this for Enablers that extend the runway
- prevents velocity bottleneck, speculative quality, and impossible scaling
- Implemented in the same iteration as the functionality
- The team that builds the functionality also does this
- Create an isolated automated test environment
- Actively maintain test data under version control
- Allows teams to maintain high velocity and to quickly correct the course of action
- Do this for maintainability, simplicity, future value, & clarity
- Emergent design is impossible w/o doing this continuously
- Improves system quality, design decisions, knowledge sharing, & team velocity
- Broader and less constraining than pair programming
- A collaborative effort of any 2 team members
- Spontaneous paring, and purposeful rotation over time
20% - 80%
Team members spend _____ (range) in time pairing
- Addresses bottlenecks, increases velocity, and encourages shared contribution
- Fosters Feature orientation
- Supported by:
- Design simplicity
- Communities of Practice
- Pair work
- Joint specification & design workshops
- Frequent integration of the entire system
Collective test ownership
This is even more important - it facilitates shared understanding of system behavior
Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE)
The practice of developing a set of related system models that help define, design and document a system under development. These models provide an efficient way to explore, update, & communicate system aspects to stakeholders, while significantly reducing or eliminating dependence on traditional documents.
Continuously convert uncertainty to knowledge.
- Emphasizes design discovery over design creation
- Concurrently explores multiple designs options to find an optimum, rather than the 1st, Solution
- Understands design trade-offs before detailing specifications
Continuous story integration
Developer codes Story until it gets delivered, integrated, deployed and validated through running tests.
Continuous system integration
Teams continuously integrate assets (leaving as little as possible to the System Team)
- Integrate every vertical slice of a user story
- Avoid physical branching for software
- Use development by intention in case of inter-team dependencies
6 recommended practices for CD (Continuous Deployment)
1. Maintain development & test environments to better match production
2. Maintain a staging environment hat emulates production
3. Deploy to staging every Iteration
4. Automate testing of features & nonfunctional requirements
5. Automate deployment
6. Decouple deployment from release
Develop on (1)_____. Release on (2)_____.
An agile approach to bridge the gap between development & operations to deliver value faster & more reliable.
It is a capability of every Agile Release Train.
CALMR approach to DevOps
C - culture
A - automation
L - lean flow
M - measurement
R - recovery
Establish a culture of shared responsibility for development, deployment & operations
Automate the continuous delivery pipeline
Keep batch sizes small, limit WIP and provide extreme visibility
Measure the flow through the pipeline. Implement application telemetry.
Architect and enable low risk releases. Establish fast recovery, fast reversion, & fast fix-forward.
Daily Stand-up (DSU)
The key to team synchronization & self-organization; it is not a daily status meeting for management.
- share information about progress
- coordinate activities
- raise blocking issues
Daily Stand-up patterns
Basic scrum pattern meeting agenda:
1. What did I do yesterday to advance the IG?
2. What will I do today to advance the IG?
3. Are there any impediments?
The Meet-After agenda
1. Review topics the Scrum Master wrote on the meet-after board
2. Involved parties discuss, uninvolved people leave
Backlog Refinement session
A preview and elaboration of upcoming Stories.
- Helps the team "sleep" on new Stories prior to the IP
- Provides enough time to identify & resolve dependencies & issues that could impact the next iteration
- The team can improve Stories, add acceptance criteria, & point out missing info to the PO
- Most of the focus in on the next iteration, but allows time to discuss future iterations & even features for the next PI
- Provides the true measure of progress by showing working SW functionality, HW components, etc
- Preparation for the review starts w/ planning
- Teams demonstrate every Story, Spike, Refactor, NFR
- Attendees: Team & its stakeholders
Iteration Review guidelines
- Timebox: 1 - 2 hrs
- Review preparation should be limited to 1-2 hrs. Minimize ppt. Work from the repository of Stories
- If a major stakeholder cannot attend, the PO should follow up individually
1. How we did on the Iteration (meeting goals + Story by Story review)
2. How we're doing on the PI (review of PI objectives + remaining PI scope & re prioritization if necessary)
The Iteration Review provides _____ views into the program
These increments have SAFe Definition of Done (4)
1. Team increment
2. System increment
3. Solution increment
A regular meeting where team members discuss the results of the Iteration, review their practices, and identify ways to improve.
- 30 - 60 mins
- Pick 1-2 things that can be done better, target for next iteration
- Enter improvement items into the Team Backlog
The seminal, cadence-based, face-to-face planning event that serves as the heartbeat/pacemaker of the Agile Enterprise
2 days every 8 - 12 weeks
PI Planning happens in ______. (10 weeks typical)
Goal of PI Planning
Alignment to a common mission
(to gain alignment & commitment around a clear set of prioritized objectives)
Presenting new PI content upfront to the team solves a lot of problems later, during PI planning
Facilitated by RTE:
1. PM & other stakeholders refine Program Backlog
2. POs roughly split Features into story-like chunks
Facilitate by SM:
3. Each PO presents initial stories to the team, looks for feedback, big unknowns, etc.
- Teams develop draft plans & identify risks & impediments
- Architects and Product Managers circulate
Business summaries of what each team intends to deliver in the upcoming PI. (mission alignment)
They often map directly to the features in the backlog.. but not always.
- Set high enough to stretch an organization to perform at its full potential and deliver best possible results.
- Provides a reliability guard band
(they do count and they are planned)
[T/F] Stretch objectives do not count in velocity/capacity.
Teams should write their PI Objectives in the SMART format
S - specific
M - measurable
A - achievable
R - realistic
T - time-bound
R - resolved
O - owned
A - accepted
M - mitigated
Team and Program
Confidence vote is done in _____ level(s).
The full System Increment is demonstrated to _____ every 2 weeks.
Innovation and Planning Iteration (IP)
Facilitate reliability, Program Increment readiness, planning, and innovation
3 parts of System and Adapt
1. PI System Demo
2. Quantitative measurement
3. Problem-solving workshop
The primary measure of progress in SAFe is objective evidence of working solutions.
This communicates the planned deliverables and milestones over a time line
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