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74 terms

PSY 101 Final Exam

The book that goes along with this is PSYCH Student Edition 2 by Spencer A. Rathus
STUDY
PLAY
The process of changing information so that we can place it in memory is called ___. Page #144
encoding
The stages of information processing in memory are ___. Page #145
encoding, storage, and retrieval
Jason straining his eyes on the deck of a ship is trying to memorize distant land marks to the harbor entrance. He is most likely using a ___. Page #144
maintenance rehearsal
Ludwig a cellist is memorizing a musical composition by heart with out reference to the sheet music. He most likely is using an (a) ___. Page #144
metamemory
Mentally repeating a list and saying it to yourself refers to __. Page #144
maintenance rehearsal
The process of locating and returning information to consciousness is referred to as ___. Page #144
retrieval
Motives are described as hypothetical states because ___. Page #188
they are not seen and measured directly
Examples of physiological needs are ___. Page #188
oxygen, food, drink, pain avoidance, etc.
Needs can be described as ___. Page #188
physiological or psychological
Physiological needs are generally based upon ___. Page #188
needs to survive
Hunger is to ___ as food deprivation is to ___. Page #188
psychological, physiological
The typical maximum number of chunks of information that can be held in short term memory is ___. Page #149
three
The appearance of new information in short term memory displacing the old information suggests that STM store is ___. Page #149
limited
A person that reconstructs their experience according to their prejudice is ___. Page #150
schema
Benjamin can remember exactly where he was and what he was doing when he heard about the death of his big brother, this is called ____. Page #151
flashbulb memories
Flashbulb memory seems vivid for all of the following reasons except ___. Page #152
(know the reasons of flashbulb memory)
According to behaviorist, ___ is any relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior that occurs because of experience. Page #120
learning
The reason fish and tadpoles are born to swim, and robins can sing the song of their species after birth is that lower animal behavior is ___. Page #120
stimuli
Complex human learning is largely a result of ____. Page #120
classical conditioning
A student's preference of a grade of an "A" rather than an "F" is most likely the result of ____. Page #120
classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov is best known for his research in ___. Page #121
conditioning
Ivan Pavlov was original attempting to identify ___. Page #121
neural receptors
Good grades serve as ____ for studying. Page #188
motives
The observation that birds reared in isolation from other birds have the capacity to build nests without observation or learning experience provides evidence for the ___. Page #188
instincts
___ is a demand made on an organism to adapt, cope, or adjust. Page #230
Stress
Some stress is necessary to keep individuals alert and occupied. Hans Selye referred to this as ___. Page #230
eustress
The study of how psychological issues affect physical illness is called ___. Page #230
health psychology
___ usually takes one trial to condition successfully. Page #123
Taste aversions
In operant conditioning the manner in which the 1st responses is made can ___. Page #129
happen by chance or be physically guided
The two types of reinforces distinguished by Skinner are ___. Page #129
positive and negative reinforcers
Reinforces can be ___. Page #130
positive and negative
Money is a secondary reinforcer because it ___. Page #130
acquires value
In Ebbinghaus classic curve of forgetting the greatest memory loss occurs ___. Page #155
right after material was learned
The mental activity involved in understanding, processing and communication information is called ___. Page #163
thinking
Thinking enables individual's to ___. Page #163
pay attention to info, representing it mentally, reasoning about it, and making judgements and decisions about it
Mental categories used to class together objects, relations, events, abstractions or qualities that have common properties are called ___. Page #164
concept
Which of the following illustrates continuous reinforcement?___. Page #132
The pigeon hitting the button to get food.
All of the following demonstrate how operant conditioning influences the behavior of children.____. Page #134
Operant conditioning is like classical conditioning but without an exotic laboratory procedure.
George Miller found that the average person is able to keep about ___ digits in mind at a time. Page #141
seven
Tim can remember what he had for lunch yesterday. This is an example of ___. Page #142
episodic memory
The reason Ivan Pavlov's dogs began salivating in response to an assistant entering the lab was because ___. Page #121
the assistant was clumsy and banged the metal food trays
Pavlov referred to learnt salivation as ___ today is better known as ___. Page#121
conditional reflexes, classical conditioning
According ___ respective an organism learns the association between two stimuli because they are pair together, not because the organism knows that one stimuli will follow another. Page#121
Pavlovl's
The cognitive psychologists' view of classical conditioning states that ___. Page #121
it is learning of relationships among events
You walk pass pizza hut and salivate in response to the aroma of fresh pizza, this is the result of ___. Page #121or122
uncondtioned response
Which of the following best describes giving a dog food after rolling over?___. Page#130
Condtioned reinforcers.
Punishment is an aversive event that ___ the frequency the behavior it follows. Page#132
partial reinforcement
The text gives an example of a pigeon getting rewarded for pecking a button only in the presents of a green light. We can safely assume that ___. Page#132
the experiment is a discriminative stimuli test
We tend to organize concepts into ___ which relate the concepts according to levels. Page #164
hierarchies
During language development, children exhibit over exclusion of instances within a category, such as calling a tiger a cat, this is referred to as ___. Page #165
algorithm
Don solves puzzles and problems with ease. He probably uses all of the following except ___. Page#165
systematic random search
Albert lost the keys to his car sometime between the time he locked it and his return to the car about 3 hours later. Albert retraced his steps, going to all the places he visited after he initially locked the car. Albert is using ___ to find his key. Page #165
means-end analysis
Algorithms are usually time consuming where as ___ provides a more rapid solution when they work. Page #165
heuristics
Visual images are to ___ memory as auditory images are to ___ memory. Page #147
iconic, echoic
The memory that enables one to hold information for a limited time in one's mind is called ___. Page #147
short-term memory
Danna can only remember a few of the fist and last items on her grocery list. This is an example of the ___. Page #148
serial-position effect
According to George Miller, the magic number 7+ or -2 reefers to ___. Page #149
chunking
After a single presentation, Megan can recall her friends' long distance phone number and five digits extension even though the sequence contains 15 digests. One reason for her ease of recall is that she combined the digest into smaller groups. This process is called ____. Page #149
chunking
The correct of events in memory process is ___. Page #144
encoding, storage, and retrieval
The process by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved is called ___. Page #145
memory
Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed the 3 stages of memory referred to as ____. Page #145
The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model
The stage of memory that 1st encounters stimuli is called ____. Page #145
sensory memory
Psychologists believe that we posses a sensory register for ___. Page #147
iconic memory
You are taking notes while listening to a lecture; the sensory register holds the information as ___ in your ___ memory. Page #147
iconic, echoic
Experts solve problems more efficiently and rapidly than novices do because ___. Page #166
of mental set
Walking away from a problem temporally can allow for ____ to help overcome mental sets that interfere with finding the correct solution. Page # 189
stimulus motives
Motivates accurate behavior and propel the organism ___. Page #188
motive
The study of motivation is an attempt to understand ___ behavior occurs. Page #188
incentive
Psychologists define hypothetical states that activate behavior and propel one towards goal as ___. Page #188
motive
The memories of things that happen to us or occur in our life are referred to as ___. Page #142
episodic
The type of memory one would use to remember the 7 wonders of the ancient world is ___. Page #142
semantic memory
Which of the following is most likely to remain firmly embedded in your memory over the decades?___. Page #143
(Answer should be easily available)
___ memory is recalling information that we previously learnt and ___ memory refers to remember to do things in the future. Page #143
Retrospective, prospective
The memory that tends to fail when we are feeling stressed, distracted, preoccupied is called ____. Page #143
prospective memory