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Ch. 11, 12, & 13 Part 1 Psych Final
Terms in this set (81)
influence of real, imagined, or implied presence of others on our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
________ is changing the behavior to match others because of real or imagine group presence.
________ is fulfilling a request.
________ following direct commands, from authority person.
This person studied how subjects confommed to group opinion about 1/3 of the time.
Normative Social Influence
_________ is the need for approval and acceptance. Ex: smoking, drinking, etc.
Informational Social Influence
_________ is the need for info and direction. Ex: buying a computer.
_________ is when people we conform to because we like and admire them and want them to be like them. Ex: brand name clothing worn by actresses.
Door-in-the-face, lowball, foot-in-the-door, and that's-not-all technique
What are the four types of compliance/consumer psychology?
_________ technique - large commitment refused, then request smaller commitment. Ex: $1000 for birthday, asked for $300.
_________ technique - gain commitment, but before action/payment, raise cost. Ex: agree to buy car; sunroof and seat heater for $20k.
_________ technique - small commitment, gain compliance, then ask bigger commitment until desired goal. Ex: allowance for $20, then $30, then $50.
_________ technique - seller makes offer and adds extra before person makes a decision; sweeten the deal. Ex: $15k for car --> add floormats.
Legitimacy, Remoteness, Assignment of Responsibility, and Modeling/limitation
What are the four major factors of affecting obedience.
Type of group behavior; tendency for groups to take extreme positions and suggest riskier actions. Strong leader, ambiguous, wanting to be favored by group members.
Type of group behavior; decision-making group feels it is more important to maintain group unanimity and cohesiveness than to consider facts realistically.
Type of group behavior; positive influence of others on performance if easy tasks.
Type of group behavior; negative influence of others on performance, especially on difficult tasks.
Type of group behavior; lazy person performs less well than if working alone --> counteract by identifying/reinforcing individual behaviors.
_________ is the tendency to respond positively or negatively toward certain people, idea, objects, or situations.
Cognitive, Affective, and Behavior
What are the components of attitudes?
Direct contact with someone, direct instruction from parents/others, interaction with others, and vicarious (watching others reaction .
How can attitude be formed?
Persuasion and Cognitive Dissonance
Attitude change can occur thru ________ and _________ ?
_________ is an attempt to change another's attitude via argument, emotions, explanation, force, etc.
Elaboration Likelihood Model; involves attending to the content of the message itself.
Elaboration Likelihood Model; involves attending to factors involved in the message, such as --> appearance of source message, length of message, and food and atmosphere.
The discomfort when one's thoughts and behaviors do not correspond is known as _________ ?
The process of explaining the cause of behavior (ours and others) is ________ ?
Dispositional (internal) Attribution
What type of attribution describes this scenario: "He's such a careless driver. He never watches out for cars."
What type of attribution describes this scenario: "He's probably caught in some bad traffic, or he is late for a meeting."
Fundamental Attribution Error
__________ is misjudging the causes of others' behavior as due to internal (dispositional) vs. external (situational) factors.
__________ internalize (taking credit, personal factors) our successes and externalize (situational factors) our failures. Ex: Win game --> we're good! Lose the game --> bad refs.
(Cognitive) --> beliefs about the characteristics of people in a group generalized to all group members. Ex: white men can't jump --> see white man play basketball, believe he can't jump.
(Affective) --> feelings associated with the object of the prejudice. Ex: dislike any white men playing basketball.
(Behavioral) --> negative behaviors directed at member of the group
Examples of Prejudice/Discrimination Relationships
• Yes/Yes → An African American is denied a job because the owner of a business is prejudiced
• No/Yes → An African American is denied a job because the owner of a business fears white customers wont buy from an African American salesperson
• Yes/No → An African American is given a job because the owner of a business hopes to attract African American Customers
• No/No → An African American is given a job because he or she is the best suited for it
(Mental Shortcut); in-group viewed more positively and having more diversity than out group
Out-group Homogeneity Effect
(Mental Shortcut) out-group judged as less diverse (viewed to be the same) than in-group; due to limited interaction with group members
Learned Response (classical/operant conditioning/modeling)
- i.e. Asian man (cs) yelling (loud noise-US) → fear (CR)
- i.e. make fun of Asian man (response) → classmate laugh (reinforce) more likely to make fun of Asian man in the future
- i.e. see popular guy make fun of Asian man and people laugh → you make fun
Sources of Prejudice and Discrmination
Learned Response, Mental Shortcut, Economic/Political Competition for Limited Resources, Displaced Aggression.
Scapegoating of less threatening group.
Ways to overcome prejudice
- increased contact (positive)
- cognitive dissonance
-cognitive retraining (attention to similarities)
Positive feelings or having the desire for a relationship with another person
Factors of Attraction
1. Physical Attractiveness:initial factor
2. Proximity: mere exposure effect - initial required factor
3. Similarity: need compatibility vs. complementarity --> birds of a feather flock together
4. Reciprocity of liking (mutual feelings)
Three Components of Love
1. Intimacy --> feelings of emotional closeness
2. Passion --> physical arousal of love
3. Commitment --> decisions about a relationship
Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love
Romantic Love Consummate Love Companionate Love
Middle of the Triangular Theory of Love; intimacy + passion + commitment
any behavior (words, actions, NOT thoughts) intended to harm someone
Biological Factors in Aggression
1. Instincts (pain elicited aggression)
2. Genes, brain, nervous system
1. Aversive stimuli (noise, heat, pain, frustration
2. Culture and learning (U.S. one of most violent nations)
3. Violent media/video games (modeling, active participation)
Ways to control aggression
1. Incompatible responses (laughter, humor)
2. Improve social and communication skills
helping motivated by anticipated self gain (feels good, alleviates distress, guilt, loneliness, etc.)
helping, motivating by empathy for others' gain
- a nonspecific response of the body to any demand made on it
- or arousal, both physical and psychological, to situations or events perceived as threatening or challenging
cause of stress reaction
effect of undesirable stressors
effect of positive events
• unpredictable, large scale events affecting many people at one time
• creates tremendous need to adjust
• many people, large scale, huge changes
Major Life Changes
• life events that require adjustment in behavior or lifestyle;
• degrees of stress to the same life events varies by individuals
• small, everyday problems that accumulate to become source of stress
• frustrations, delays, minor disagreements, irritations, etc.
urgent demands or expectations from outside source; ie. parents
degree of control over event or situation; more stress with less control perceived control
Psychological stressor; desired goal or fulfillment of perceived need is blocked, leading to possible
• Displaced Aggression
• Escape or withdrawal
forced choice between two goals, only one can be attained
- easiest to resolve
- Goal #1 Positive, Goal #2 Positive
- i.e. drumstick vs. snickers bar
- hardest to resolve
- Goal #1 Negative, Goal #2 Negative
- clean toilets or clean dumpsters
Double Approach-Avoidance Conflicts
- two goals each with positive and negative
- Goal #1 Positive and Negative, Goal #2 Positive and Negative
- Double - movie at home or in theatre
Illustration of General Adaptation Syndrome
• Stage 1: Alarm → activates Sympathetic System
• Stage 2: Resistance → Physiological response declines
• Stage 3: Exhaustion → Energy depleted, increase possibility of illness, life threatening
Stress has been shown to put people at higher risk for ________ ?
What stress and illness can causes
• Cancer: related to hereditary disposition and environmental factors
• Cardiovascular Disorders: contributing factors include stress hormones, cetin personality types, and certain behaviors
• Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): anxiety disorder following exposure to extraordinary stress
• Gastric Ulcers: caused by bacteria or stress
Type A Stress Personality
- time conscious
- often impatient, angry, hostile
- more likely for heart disease
Characteristics of a ___________
Type B Stress Personality
- relaxed, less competitive, slow to anger
- less likely to have heart disease
Characteristics of a ___________
• Optimists look for positive outcomes and experience far less stress than pessimists who take a more negative view
Stress and Social Factors
Poverty, Job Stress, Acculturative Stress --> associated with people
Social Support Systems
important in helping (emotional, physical, monetary) people cope with stress
actions that people can take to master, tolerate, reduce or minimize stressor effects
takes direct action to eliminate or reduce source of stress
change perception of stressor impact
mental exercise to refocus attention to trancelike consciousness; reduce physical reactions of stress
Helps coping by:
- social support system
- meaning and purpose
- healthy habits
- sense of control
Reduces heart disease, cancer, weight, anxiety, depression
Recommended textbook explanations
Carolyn Seefer, Mary Ellen Guffey
Child Development: An Active Learning Approach
David Barlow, V Durand
David Barlow, Stefan Hofmann, V Durand
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