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History Midterm Exam
Terms in this set (88)
Where was Egypt based at?
Nile River Valley Civilization
Where was Upper Egypt?
Where was Lower Egypt?
What are nomes?
a geographic region
How many nomes in Egypt?
What are the characteristics of nomes?
- outskirts of Egypt
- ran by an individual
- Egypt can rebound off nomes
What happened during the Predynastic period of Egypt?
Narmer develops nomes and unifies the upper and lower region
What happened during the Old Kingdom of Egypt?
Pyramids (life and death) and mummification
What happened during the first intermediate of Egypt?
back into two regions and Mentuatep II brings in the Middle Kingdom
What happened during the Middle Kingdom of Egypt?
- expansion into Central Africa for trade & commerce (gold and ebony)
- migration of Hyksos into Egypt and became leaders of Lower Egypt
What were the Hyksos known as?
How long did Hyksos rule?
What happened during the New Kingdom of Egypt?
- expulsion of Hyksos by Southern Egyptians
- expanding North and conque
What makes a Pharaoh different than a King?
living representation of the God they relate, majority the God RA
What is MA'AT?
Code of Conduct for egyptians and was represented by a goddess
Why was it important to follow the MA'AT?
saved all from chaos
How was following the MA'AT a score card for Pharaohs?
to see if he ensured balance among his people
What was the determination if a Pharaoh successfully followed MA'AT?
Heart measured on a scale compared with a feather:
- If lighter, sent to their heaven
- If heavier, sent to their hell
Why did the Hyksos migrate into Egypt?
possible expansion of Babylonian Empire
Where did Abraham come from?
city of UR
What religion did Abraham follow?
What was Pharaoh Ahmose known for?
start of New Kingdom
What was Queen Hatshepsut known for?
longest reigning queen (22 years) & would not pass reign to her son
What was Pharaoh Tutmosis III known for?
erasing memory of his mother by destroying all images of her
What was Pharaoh Akhenaten known for?
wanted to be represented exactly how he looked, forced adoption of monotheism
What were the 2 symbols on the hat of King Tut?
Bird & Cobra- representing all of Egypt he reigned
What was Pharaoh Ramases II known for?
brought Egypt into war
How many tribes were there for the Hebrews?
What was different about the Ten Commandments?
laws were applied equally
Why was the covenant between God and the Hebrews important?
they were God's chosen people & had to obey the law
Who were the 3 kings of Israel?
King Saul, David, & Solomon
What was King Saul known for?
brought all tribes together
What was King David known for?
developing Capital of Jerusalem
What was King Solomon known for?
building first temple and raising taxes
How did the Kingdom split?
Invasion of Assyrians
North- Israel (10 tribes)
South- Judah (2 tribes)
What were the 10 tribes in Israel known as?
What was Judah reduced to?
What is a Client State?
a state with no real autonomy
What was the second invasion?
Babylonian Empire invading Assyria
What happened during the Babylonian invasion?
Solomon's temple & Judah destroyed
What happened during the Captivity of Judah?
period of "exile" & the wealthy, political and religious leaders taken into captivity
Where were the captives of Judah held?
in the "ghetto" of Babylon, their own section
What was the Persian Invasion of Judah?
freed captives of Babylon
Who was Homer?
author of the Iliad & Odyssey
What did polis mean?
Physical- place of protection for all to go to
Abstract- group identity
What did Eunomia mean?
good order of society & individuals, keeping away chaos
What was religion in Greece?
What is an oracle/delphi?
fortune teller, actual person
What does Pan-Hellenistic mean?
What Greece unified?
No, all their own City-States
- little connections but can come together to defend in battle
What were the two roles of men?
Farmer & Soldier- Citizen Soldier
What is a colony?
a separate geographic region
How were the monarchies in each polis?
What is an olgarchy?
a shared rulership revolving a small family, rotating among the family
What is a tyrant?
someone who came into power illegally, not from royal family, overbearing & cruel
Who were the Homoioi in Sparta?
true Spartans, minority
Who were Peiokoi in Sparta?
free people, non-Spartans, had contact with outside world
Who were Helots in Sparta?
slaved owned by Spartans
How was Government in Sparta?
What was Gerousia?
council that controlled politics, handle foreign policy, and establish court system
How were men selected to be on Gerousia?
selected by the Apella, men at 30 years old
What was the Ephors?
kept law and order through fear
- 5 "judges"
- controlled the Krypteia
What were the Krypteia?
secret police, spying on people and Helots
What was education like in Sparta?
open to boys and girls, emphasized on physical strength
What was male role in Sparta?
What was female role in Sparta?
produce healthy children
What was the Agoge?
training for military
How was women in Sparta?
had more rights than men
How was Athens different than Sparta?
never "self-isolated", communicated with outside world
How was society in Athens?
family-based control (Aristoi)
What were the xenons in Athens?
outsiders, "guest citizen"
How were slaves in Athens?
had more freedom
What was the role of women in Athens?
domesticated housewife, property of "male guardian", have no say
What was it like if women in Athens were seen outside?
against their moral character
What was the role of citizens in Athens?
had a voice, able to vote
Who was socrates?
philosopher, socratic method, question everything
What was Plato known for?
believing in not being persuaded by public opinion, not relying on senses
Why did Plato not want to rely on senses?
They're biased opinions
What did Aristotle believe?
making rational decisions and relying on senses, using the scientific method
Who was Herodotus?
Father of History, wrote about wars and what people saw/their experiences
Who was Thucydites?
Historical writer, used no divine intervention which had more accuracy of events
What was King Phillip II known for?
King of Macedon and developed the League of Corinth?
What was the League of Corinth?
promised law and order to Greece, wanted land controlled by Persia
What was Alexander the Great known for?
warrior king, established the largest empire, opened Greece to outside influences
What 3 ideas did Alexander the Great establish to better society?
Cynics, Stoics, and Epicurians
What was cynics?
root of evil is materialism
What was stoics?
accept pain and pleasure
What was epicureans?
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