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First Continental Congress

1774 sttended by 12 states (not Georgia). congressmen set out to define American grievances and develop a plan for resistance against the coercive acts (intolerable acts)

Joseph and Mary Brant

Iroquois leader who helped persuade the Mohawks, Senecas, and Cayugas to support the British in later stages of the Revolution. protect selves from land-hungry colonists. Oneidas and Tuscaroras oppose

Declaration of Rights and grievances

compromise worked out by John Adams. Declared that Americans would obey parliament because it was in everyone's best interest. Also asserted that Americans would resist all taxes in disguise, like Townshend duties (at first continental congress 1774)

Franco-American Alliance

1778 a defensive alliance between the French and Americans formed in the midst of the American Revolution, which promised military support in case case of attack by British forces. It was established by delegates of King Louis XVI of France and the 2nd Continental Congress

Continental Association

Set up Firts Continental Congress. called for non-importation of British goods, non-consumption of British goods, and the non-exporation of American goods to Britain or its colonies

Battle of Charleston

May 1780 British Henry Clinton (replaced WIlliam Howe) defeated the rebel forces at Charleston after a seige of many months, General Benjamin Lincoln forced to surrender entire southern army of 5,000 men. After many men declare allegence to GB. Admiral George Rodney occupy self with securing defeat, so no pursue French fleet (play major roel at Yorktown)

Committees of Observation

local committees whose members were voted in by qualifying citizens. monitored goods imported and exported from GB. Main goal was to ensure merchants respected the trade embargo the colonies had imposed on GB in protest. checked merchants' inventories and published names of those who still imported from GB (put pressure on them). Became de facto local gov'ts that encouraged resistance to crown, and discouraged extravagance & wasting of resources that could be used to avoid dependence on British goods

Ben Franklin

American Diplomat to France. Negotiated Franco-American Alliance of 1778. Later call for unity and acceptance of constitution

provinicial conventions

when during the rise of sommittees of observation official colonial gov'ts were collapsing under the protest from patriots, elected provincial conventions took over the role of gov't. approved the Continental Association, elected delegates to 2nd continental congress, organized militias, and gathered arms and ammunition

General Nathaniel Greene

General appointed by G.Washington to command Southern army. Helped organize and unite south by helping the struggling gov'ts of Georgia and SC reestablish civilian authority, negotiating deals in which loyalists and neutrals would retain their property and not be attacked by patriot forces if they joined patriot militias, and negotiating with Native Americans (convincing them to remain neutral or resume their neutrality if they had sided with GB)

Lord Dunmore

VA'a royal governor in the breakout of the Revolution. In NOV. 1775 he offered freedom to any endentured servant or slave who would leave their pro-patriot masters and join the British cause. disrupted local economies by removing labor force

General Cornwallis

British General who was in charge of the Southern campaign in the early 1780s. After his deafeat at Cowpens in Jan. 1781, he fell back to Willmington, NC for reinforcements. Instead of going on the offensive with his 7,700 men, he retreated to a safer location at Yorktown where he waited for more supplies and men

Thomas Gage

Military Governor of MA Bay in 1774. Responsible for deploying British Regulars to capture military supplies. After British were defeated at Concord, the city of Boston was besieged and the governor was replaced by sir William Howe

Battle of Yorktown

After Cornwallis fled to Yorktown, Washington saw an opportunity to besiege and entrap the general. At the same time, the French admiral De Grasse's fleet had moved up from the Caribbean and defeated the royal Navy vessels sending reinforcements to Conrnwallis. Between American and French forces, Cornwallis was forced to surrender on Octoer 19, 1781

Battles of Lexington and Concord

Thomas Gage recieved news from Lord Dartmouth to take decisive action against the rebels on April 14, 1775 he dispatched an expedition of British troops to confiscate colonial military supplies in Concord, MA. Messengers (Paul Revere, William Dawes, Samuel Prescott) were sent to alert the local militia. 70 men faced several hundred British regulars at Lexington and were easily dispersed (8 injured 10 killed). A larger Colonial force formed in Concord, and were able to hold the British off at North Bridge and the regulars retreated back to Boston (the redcoats suffered 272 casualties including 70 deaths)

Lord Dartmouth

secretary of state of the Americas

Treaty of Paris

signed on Sept. 3, 1783 treaty which ended Revolutionary War. B.Franklin, J.Jay, and J.Adams ignored orders from congress to negotiate thru the French and worked directly with the British. US got independence & more fishing rights off Nova Scotia. Florida reverted back to Spain. Created conflict because ignored the territorial rights of Indians and the document was ambiguous when it came to the treatment and compensation of Loyalists in America

William Dawes, Paul Revere, Samuel Prescott

Men who sent out alarm before Battles of Lexington and Concord

Battle of Bunker Hill

Battle which occurred at Breed's Hill in Chaleston, MA on June 17, 1775. The patriots lost the hill, but the British sufferend over 800 injuries and 228 deaths (Americans lost less than half that number)

2nd continental Congress

originally intended to consider the ministry's response to the continental Association, this group became the intercolonial gov't when they met on May 10, 1775 in Philadelphia. Organized colonies for war, authorized printing of money to buy necessary goods, established a committee for foreign relations, took steps to strengthen the militia, and appointed officers for the continental army (ike G.Washington)

Gov't de jure

legal, legitimate gov't of a state/nation as recognized by other states/nations

Gov't de facto

gov't that is in actual control of a state/nation and holds the authority (for example, Committees of Observation and Inspection during the early years of resistance originally charged with overseeing implementation of Boycott, but over next 6 months gained power)

Common Sense

written by Thomas Paine who was a radical English Printer who lived in American only since 1774. Pamphlet rejected monarchy and called for an independent republic. wanted a gov't by the people with no king/nobility. complained that GB had exploited the colonies unmercifully. Confidence in a US freed form European control. Used enraged tone and examples from Bible to call to people

Battle of NY city

Mistakes made by G.Washington led to British control over NY through wins at the Battles of Brookyn Heights and Manhattan Island in 1776. G.Washington retaliated in 1777 to win a few battles (such as the battle of Princeton) that gave the Patriots land in NJ and NY


Trained and skilled mercenaries from German Providence of Hesse among the ranks of the British

Benedict Arnold

Patriot who committed treason and joined the British

Gentleman Johnny Burgoyne

British General who led troops in the battle of NY down from Montreal towards the Hudson. Was met earlier than expected by American militia and lost about 800 men. This battle allowed for troops to gather near the Hudson that eventually forced him to surrender his 6,000 men at Saratoga NY

Battle of Saratoga

Fought between British led by Johnny Burgoyne and Americans led by General Horatio Gates, British surrendered on March 17, 1777

GeneralHoratio Gates

led the American troops at Battle of Saratoga in 1777

General William Howe

British officer who transferred troops from Boston to NY on Marhc 17, 1776. also led the British take over of Philadelphia in Sept. 1777

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