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Arts and Humanities
14.4 Reformation Ideas Spread
Terms in this set (46)
Who are the Anabaptists?
1. A group that believed only adults should be baptized becuase infants were too young to understand what it meant to accept the Christian faith.
2. They also believed that the church and the state should be separate.
What ideas did the radicaly reformers, the Anabaptists, support?
1. Adult baptism
2. Some wanted to abolish private property
3. Some used violence to speed up God's judgement day
4. Some called for Religious toleration
What groups today trace their ancestry to the Anabaptists?
Who wanted to end papal control over the English church?
King Henry VIII
Who was the "defender of the faith"?
The Pope called King Henry VII this because he initially stood so firmly against the Protestant revolt.
What does annul mean?
To cancel a marriage
Who wanted to annul their marriage?
King Henry VIII wanted his marriage to Catherine annulled because he wanted a male heir.
Who did King Henry VIII want to marry?
Anne Boleyn - hoping she would bear him the male heir he desired.
What decision did King Henry VIII make after he was denied an anullment?
He decided he was going to take over the English Church.
How did the English Church get placed under Henry's rule?
Parliament passed laws that took the control of the English Church from the pope and place it with Henry.
What was the Act of Supremacy?
It made the English king, not the pope, the official head of England's church.
What happened to the Catholics that refused to accept the Act of Supremacy?
They were executed for treason
Who was Sir Thomas More?
1. The great English humanist who was executed for not accepting the Act of Supremacy.
2. He was later canonized by the Catholic Church
What does canonize mean?
To be recognized as a saint by the Catholic Church.
Who annulled King Henry VIII's marriage?
Thomas Cranmer - who Henry had appointed as the archbishop
What changes did King Henry VIII make to the Church of England?
1. He broke away from Rome
2. He closed English convents and monasteries - he claimed they were centers of immorality
3. He seized and confiscated their land and granted it to nobles and higher ranking citizens - this gained him the support he needed to change the name of the Church of England.
What did he name the new Church of England?
The Anglican Church
What happened with the Church under Edward VI?
Parliament passed new laws that brought the Protestant reforms to England.
Who is Edward VI?
King Henry VIII's son who took over the throne when Henry died.
Who wrote the 'Book of Common Prayer'?
Thomas Cranmer - this book imposed a Protestant church service (rather than a Catholic service) but kept many of the other Catholic doctrines in place.
What caused some the religious turmoil after King Henry VIII died?
The Protestant reforms which were brough to England and the writing of the 'Book of Common Prayer'
Who is Mary Tudor?
Edward VI's half sister who became Queen after Edward died.
What did Queen Mary Tudor vow to do?
Return England to the Catholic faith.
(many Protestants burned at the stake under her reign)
Who is Elizabeth I?
She became the Queen of England after Queen Mary Tudor died.
What is the Elizabethan Settlement?
A series of reforms which Queen Elizabeth put into place to determine the future of the Church of England.
What did the policies of the Elizabethan Settlement include?
A compromise, or acceptable middle ground, between Protestant and Catholic practices.
What was one of Elizabeth's biggest changes to the Church of England?
She allowed English (speaking) to replace Latin (speaking) for church services.
Who was Pope Paul III?
The leader of the vigorous Catholic Reformation movement.
Why was a vigorous reform movement necessary within the Catholic Church?
1. Because the Protestant Reformation was sweeping across northern Europe.
2. The Moral authority of the Church needed reviving - the corruption within the papacy needed to end.
What did Pope Paul III establish in order to provide a direction for the reforms needed?
He established the COUNCIL OF TRENT
What were the duties of the Council of Trent?
1. To reaffirm the traditional Catholic views the Protestants had challenged
2. To end abuses in the Church - penalties now existed for corruption among the clergy
3. It established schools to create better educated clergy who would challenge Protestant teachings.
What did Pope Paul III do to deal with the Protestant threat more directly?
He strengthened the INQUISITION - the Church court that was set up during the Middle Ages to punish those who used heresy.
What else did the Inquisition establish?
The INDEX OF FORBIDDEN BOOKS - a list of works considered too immoral or irreligious for Catholics to read. Included books written by Luther and Calvin.
Who was Ignatius of Loyola?
1. The founder of the Jesuits - the society of Jesus.
2. He lead the Jesuits in a crusade to defend and spread the Catholic faith.
3. He vowed to be a 'soldier of God'
What was the purpose of founding this new religious order - the Jesuits?
To combat heresy and to spread the Catholic faith.
What did the Jesuits do to further the Catholic cause?
1. They became advisors to Catholic rulers
2. They helped combat heresy
3. They set up schools that taught humanist and Catholic beliefs
4. They enforced dicipline and obedience
5. They disguised themselves and went into Protestant lands and ministered to the spiritual needs of Catholics
Who is Teresa of Avila?
A spanish born woman who became a nun at a young age and eventually set up her OWN ORDER OF NUNS.
How did the nuns in Teresa of Avila's order live?
1. in isolation
2. ate little
3. slept little
4. dedicated themselves to prayer and meditation
What did the Church superiors ask Teresa do to?
To reorganize and reform convents and monasteries throughout Spain.
What was the basis of the widespread persecution during this time?
Because Europe remained divided into a Catholic south and a Protestant north after the Catholic Reformation.
Catholics and Protestants persecuted radical sects like the Anabaptists did.
During this time of 'Wars of Religion'....
Heresy was often linked to what?
What did the religious ferver/intensity cause?
Witch hunts - tens of thousands of women and men died as victims of witch hunts during this time of 'wars of religion'
People accused of withcraft were often what?
1. social outcasts
3. poor widows
4. midwives (blamed for the deaths of infants)
5. herbalists (whose potions were seen as gifts from the devil)
what is a scapegoat?
One who is given the blame for other people's mistakes or failures.
What restrictions on Jews were implemented during the Reformation?
1. Venice (and other Italian cities) ordered Jews to live in a separate quarter of the city from the Catholics - the GHETTO
2. Luther called for Jews to be expelled from Christian lands and their synagogues and books to be burned
3. In Germany, if Jews left the GHETTO, they had to wear a yellow badge
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