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psychology 206 chapter 5 and 6 test
Terms in this set (69)
pioneer in observational learning (AKA social learning), stated that people profit from the mistakes/successes of others; Studies: Bobo Dolls-adults demonstrated 'appropriate' play with dolls, children mimicked play
discovered classical conditioning; trained dogs to salivate at the ringing of a bell
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
the process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses
a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired; a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone.
the learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response.
unconditioned response (UCR)
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
conditioned response (CR)
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)
learning that occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response
the tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus
1904-1990; Field: behavioral; Contributions: created techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior; Studies: Skinner box
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
any behavior that is voluntary
An event following a response that strengthens the tendency to make that response.
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment.)
John B. Watson
behaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat
Something that is naturally reinforcing, such as food (if you were hungry), warmth (if you were cold), and water (if you were thirsty).
an event that tends to decrease the behavior that it follows
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
a type of learning in which behavior is reinforced each time it occurs
A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently
schedule of reinforcement
A timetable for when and how often reinforcement for a particular behavior occurs
fixed-ratio (FR) reinforcement
a partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement following a fixed number of responses
variable-ratio (VR) schedule
pattern in which we provide reinforcement after a specific number of responses on average, with the number varying randomly
variable-ratio (VI) reinforcement
the use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
learning by observing others
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy.
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
the processing of information into the memory system—for example, by extracting meaning.
the process of retaining encoded information over time
the process of getting information out of memory storage
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
practice of saying some information to be remembered over and over in one's head in order to maintain it in short-term memory
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
the collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place
the gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice, or "knowing how" to do things
a network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
Memories we don't deliberately remember or reflect on consciously
the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
Constructed memory theory, anti-repressed memories. Some memories may be constructed or report false aspects of an actual memory. Questions can prompt this. Car crash experiment.
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
the theory that people forget not because memories are lost from storage but because other information gets in the way of what they want to remember
Consciously and intentionally pushing unpleasant feelings out of one's mind
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
a distorted or fabricated recollection of something that did not actually occur
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
are a sequence of expected behaviors for a given situation
the increased confidence in a false memory of an event following repeated imagination of the event
physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed
loss of memory
Failure to recall memories that have been stored before a trauma
the neural storage of a long-term memory
an inability to form new memories
a slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, and judgment, that is often accompanied by personality changes
Degenerative brain disorder; first appears as progressive memory loss and later develops into generalized dementia
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
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