typical mono and disaccharides found in diet
(GFG) glucose, fructose, galactose
(LMS)lactose, maltose, sucrose
symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Type 1=HYPERGLYCEMIA (elevated blood glucose levels), POLYDIPSYA (excess thirst), polyuria (excess urination), GLYCOSURIA (glucose in the urine), dehydration, increased appetite, and weight loss.
Type 2 =GENETIC TENDENCY, increased RESISTANCE to the action of INSULIN by body
cells, and pancreatic cell defects. Characterized by ABNORMAL INSULIN SECRETION by the pancreas coupled with cellular resistance to insulin.
As body cells become more and more resistant to insulin, the pancreas adapts by producing ever increasing amounts. The pancreatic cells eventually become exhausted, and insulin production drops.
is fiber digestible? a source of calories?
no and no--just passing through. functional fiber is a non-digestible form of carbohydrate extracted from plants or made to provide dietary supplements or enrich manufactured foods as a health benefit.
difference between soluble and insoluble dietary fiber.
Soluble fiber dissolves in water and is viscous. Insoluble fiber doesn't dissolve in water and is nonviscous.
what is the glycemic index and what does it tell us about dietary carbs?
Glycemic Index (GI) describes the blood glucose response to a 50 gram portion of a test food when
compared to that of a standard food consumed by the same person. Low GI foods are digested more slowly than high GI foods and raise post‐meal blood glucose levels only slightly. Low GI foods contain more fiber thus benefiting the health of the large intestine. A low GI diet reduces risk of chronic disease including diabetes and elevated blood‐cholesterol.
High GI foods generate a sharp increase in glucose levels.
how does dietary fiber help you stay healthy?
1.Reduces risk of colon cancer
2.Reduces risk of hemorrhoids, constipation, and keeps stool moist and soft
3. Provides exercise for intestinal muscles
4.Decreases risk of diverticulosis by reducing pressure during bowel movement
5.Reduces risk of heart disease by reducing absorption of cholesterol
6.Provides a send of fullness after eating that delays onset of hunger thus assisting in weight loss
7.Reduces risk of type 2 diabetes as it slows movement of foods through stomach and delays
digestion of carbohydrates and release of glucose into the bloodstream
difference between lactose intolerance and milk allergy?
Lactose intolerance=cells of the small intestine no longer produce lactase, the enzyme that digests lactose. A milk allergy=an immune reaction to a foreign substance or allergen.
what three monosaccarides are absorbed into the body post-digestion?
the fate of newly absorbed glucose when blood levels are high
Liver and muscles convert glucose to glycogen for storage.
what monosaccharides combine to make sucrose? lactose? Maltose?
Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose
Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
what is the difference between simple and complex carbs?
1.Simple carbohydrates=monosaccharides and disaccharides (sugars)."
2.Complex carbs=at least 3 sugars (starches).
this is how fats are classified using the # of carbons in the fatty acid chain
2)level of saturation
what is a triglyceride?
what is a fatty acid?
TRIGLYCERIDE=molecule w 3 fatty acids+ glycerol backbone
FATTY ACID=long chains of carbon atoms bound to each other and to hydrogen atoms
describe a saturated fatty acid in terms of carbon to carbon bonds in the carbon chain
no carbons attached together with double bond+every carbon atom in the fatty acid chain saturated with hydrogen
difference between a monosaturated fatty acid and a polyunsaturated one
monosaturated=1 carbon bond between 2 carbon atoms polyunsaturated=more than 1 double bond between carbon atoms
difference between cis and trans config of fatty acid
cis has hydrogen atoms on same side as 2x bond
trans has hydrogen atoms on opposite sides of 2x bond
what is a phospholipid and what functions do they play in the body?
glycerol backbone+2 fatty acids
assist with transporting fats in our bloodstream
list the essential fatty acids. which are omega 3 and omega 6?
alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3)
linoleic acid (omega-6)
what is hydrogenation of fatty acid? recognize this process as a source of trans fats (!)
adding hydrogen, which makes them more saturated and solid
what are the lipoproteins found in the body and where are they manufactured?
a spherical cluster with fat at the center surrounded by phospholipids and proteins
*made in the small intestine
what types of foods (animal or plant) are sources of cholesterol?
milk, eggs, butter, meat and poultry
what is the role of bile in fat digestion?
Bile is an emulsifier that breaks lumps of fat up into smaller and smaller globules or
what lifestyle changes reduce risk of cardiovascular disease?
1.Limit total fat intake to 20‐35% of total energy intake
2.Decrease dietary saturated fat to <7% of total energy and limit cholesterol to <300 mg/day
3.Maintain blood glucose and insulin concentrations within normal levels
4.Don't eat most of your calories in one setting just before bed
5.Maintain an active lifestyle
6.Maintain a healthy weight
what makes protein different from carbs or fat
proteins are unique in that their synthesis involves the cell's genetic material or DNA which dictates the structure of newly formed protein. In addition proteins contain nitrogen which carbohydrate and lipid do not
essential amino acids
histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.
how does the body use available amino acids to make non-essential one
Nonessential amino acids are made by transferring the nitrogen containing group from one amino acid to a different acid group and side chain. This transfer process is transamination. The acid group and side chain can be donated by an amino acid or the body can make them from break down products of carbohydrates and lipids.
how many amino acids are in a dipeptide, triceptide, oligopeptide, polypeptide?
how does dna transfer protein production info to ribosomes?
Messenger RNA carries the information. A special molecule copies or transcribes information from DNA and carries it to the ribosome, messenger RNA or mRNA.
what is protein organization and how does it determine function?
The twists and turns of the secondary structure result from the chemical properties of each amino
acid in the peptide. The stability of the secondary structure is provided by HYDROGEN and DISULFIDE
bonds that form between parts of the protein strand. The TERTIARY structure determines the function
of the protein.
how does a missing amino acid limit protein synthesis?
If there is an error in coding in the amino acid sequence then the resulting protein is
defective and unable to perform its function.
what is mutual supplementation in terms of dietary proteins?
combining 2 or more incomplete protein sources to make a complete protein source
what is the effect of hydrochloric in the stomach on dietary proteins?
hydrochloric acid DENATURES strands preparing dietary proteins for enzymatic action and neutralizing functions. Hydrochloric acid also converts PEPSOGIN to the active form, PEPSIN. Pepsin breaks large protein complexes into smaller peptides and amino acids.
how are proteins broken down to produce energy? what are the products?
When protein is used for energy:
1. DEAMINATION ‐ nitrogen in the form of the amine group is removed
2.The AMINE group in the form of ammonia is transported via BLOODSTREAM to LIVER
3. Liver converts AMMONIA to UREA
4. UREA transported via BLOODSTREAM to KIDNEYS
5. KIDNEYS excrete UREA in URINE
6.The remaining organic fragments METABOLIZED for energy or used to make GLUCOSE
Protein can be cannibalized to produce glucose, fat cannot!
what is the fate of excess dietary protein that exceeds needs for protein synthesis?
PROTEIN TURNOVER (balance of synthesis)
ANABOLISM (building) and CATABOLISM (breaking down), is a continual process that allows the body to recycle materials and adapt.
how do proteins in the blood help maintain the acid-base balance of the blood?
BLOOD PROTEINS buffer the effects of these acidic and basic substances on the blood. ACIDS contain hydrogen ions with a positive charge. PROTEINS contain side chains that attract hydrogen ions thereby neutralizing the ir affect on blood pH. If the blood becomes more basic, proteins release HYDROGEN ions to return the blood to a more desirable pH.
how can you calculate protein needs based on weight?
divide by 2.2 to get kilograms from pounds and then multiply by .8
what is phenylketonuria?
a genetic disorder in which the body lacks the enzymes necessary to convert PHENYLALANINE to TYROSINE. As a result PHENYLALANINE, present in many protein foods, ACCUMULATES in the blood causing brain-damage and mental retardation
understand terms: protein turnover, synthesis, anabolism, catabolism
The body needs a constant supply of new protein. PROTEIN TURNOVER=the balance of synthesis between ANABOLISM (building) and CATABOLISM (breaking down), is a continual process that allows the body to recycle
materials and adapt.
a vegetarian who doesn't eat milk or eggs should supplement with these vitamins/minerals:
iron, calcium, zinc, vitamin D and B12
Anabolism is the building up of things - a succession of chemical reactions that constructs or synthesizes molecules from smaller components, usually requiring energy in the process.
Catabolism is the breaking down of things - a series of degradative chemical reactions that break down complex molecules into smaller units, and in most cases releasing energy in the process.