APUSH Vocab Units 1-5

Terms in this set (632)

Conditions varied from region to region, from large plantation to small farm, and from master to master. Everywhere, of course, slavery meant hard work, ignorance, and oppression. Slaves had no civil or political rights, other than minimal protection from arbitrary murder or unusually cruel punishment. Some states offered laws like the banishment of selling a child under the age of ten away from his or her mother, but they were hard to enforce since slaves couldn't testify in court. Floggings were common, for the whip was the substitute for the wage-incentive system and the most visible symbol of the planter's mastery. But savage beating made sullen laborers, and lash marks hurt resale values. Forced separations of spouses, parents, and children were evidently more common on smaller plantations and in the upper South. Slave marriage vows sometimes proclaimed, "Until death or distance do you part." With impressive resilience, blacks managed to sustain family life in slavery, and most slaves were raised in stable two-parent households. Continuity of family identity across generations was evidenced in the widespread practice of naming children for grandparents or adopting the surname not of the a current master, but of a forebear's master. African roots were also visible in the slaves' religious practices. Though heavily Christianized by the itinerant evangelists of the Second Great Awakening, blacks in slavery molded their own distinctive religious forms from a mixture of Christian and African elements.
___ of bleeding Kansas infamy now appeared again in an even more terrible way. His scheme was to invade the South secretly with a handful of followers, call upon the slaves to rise, furnish them with arms, and establish a kind of black free state as a sanctuary. He secured several thousand dollars for firearms from northern abolitionists and finally arrived in hilly western Virginia with some twenty men, including several blacks. At scenic ___, he seized the federal arsenal in October 1859, incidentally killing seven innocent people and injuring ten or so more. But the slaves, largely ignorant of his strike, failed to rise, and the wounded Brown and remnants of his tiny band were quickly captured by US Marines under the command of Lt. Col. ______. Ironically, within two years ___ became the preeminent general in the Confederate army. "Old Brown" was was convicted of murder and treason after a hasty but legal trial. He presumed insanity was supported by affidavits from 17 friends and relatives. But Brown was given every opportunity to pose and enjoy martyrdom. He was clever enough to see that he was worth much more to the abolitionist movement dangling from a rope than in any other way. The effects of ___ were calamitous. In the eyes of the South, Brown was a wholesale murderer and an apostle of treason. Abolitionists and free-soilers were infuriated by Brown's execution. They were outraged because the Virginians had hanged so earnest a reformer who was working for a righteous cause.
The issue of the divided Union came to a head over the matter of federal forts in the South. When Lincoln took office, only two significant forts in the South were still part of the Union (the rest had been seized by the seceding states). One of these was ___, in Charleston harbor, with fewer than a hundred men. The fort only had enough provisions to last a few weeks, and if no supplies were sent then the fort would have to surrender without firing a shot. But if Lincoln sent reinforcements, the South Carolinians would undoubtedly fight back; they could not tolerate a federal fort blocking the mouth of their most important Atlantic seaport. Lincoln notified SC that an expedition would be sent to provision the garrison, though not to reinforce it. He promised "no effort to throw in men, arms, and ammunition." But to Southern eyes "provision" still spelled "reinforcement." On April 12, 1861, the cannon of the Carolinians opened fire on the fort. After a thirty-four-hour bombardment, which took no lives, the garrison surrendered. The shelling of the fort electrified the North, which at once responded with cries of "Remember Fort ___." The assault on the fort provoked the North to a fighting pitch: the fort was lost, but the Union was saved. B/c the South fired upon the Union, Lincoln issued a call to the states for 75 thousand militiamen (some were turned away however). On April 19 and 27, the president proclaimed a leaky blockade of Southern seaports. The South saw this move as Lincoln waging war against the Confederacy. Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee, who had all previously voted down secession, reluctantly joined the seceded states.
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