81 terms

Art History: Greek, Etruscan, and Roman

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Big Greek Ideas
1)Humanism
2)Idealism
3)Rationalism
4)Democracy
Humanism
-humans are the center of the universe
- way of thinking about the world, code of conduct, scholarly pursuit
-human heroes are thought of as gods
-Gods themselves are modeled after human in looks, emotions, and weaknesses
-humans are capable of great things
Idealism
-bodies are very idealized and perfect
-idealized nude male bodies were considered to be the height of beauty
Ancient Greece
-network of autonomous city-states (Athens and Sparta)
-Spread culture throughout the world
-Alexander the Greats conquest Spread Greek ideas more
-Short existence but massive impact: About 500 years more or less gone by 100 BCE
-Greek art remains with us in the style but we have few surviving artifacts
Hallmarks of Greek Art
- Subjects: Human-like gods heroes and other accomplished humans
- "Made their gods into men and their men into gods"
- Aggressively pursued artistic innovation and Humanism
- Blend of the real and ideal.
Greek Geometric Period
-Greek depictions of afterlife reveal focus on the living
-our entire concept of what classical sculpture looked like is wrong
-most things were colored
Greek city-states
- Ancient Greece was made up of city-states, also known as Polis
- each Polis was independent and so a range of political institutions developed across the Balkan Peninsula and Aegean Islands
- the largest city-states were Athens and Sparta
Greek Archaic Period
c. 600-480 BCE (6th century B.C.E)
-follows geometric period 3 centuries after start of Greek culture. Archaic was named that by art historians
-Time of many advancements in art, literature, philosophy, and architecture
-Doric and Ionic orders emerged
-Freestanding life sized sculpture emerges
-sculptures would be grave markers, offerings to gods, and cult statues
Kouros
Forward striding nude youth sculpture- used to mark a grave (or honor a sanctuary)
- Inspired by Egyptian Ka statues
-Like a trophy for, most likely, a fallen dead hero
- Nudity was ennobling and preferred
- Would have been painted
Kore
female statue found in a sanctuary- maybe a goddesses or priestesses- always clothed
Anavysos Kouros
Archaic Greek Marble 6th century B.C.E
-Grave marker. Died in battle soldier
-not a likeness
-Detached "archaic smile" (signifies "life")
-Egyptian influence Disappears as humanism evolves
Peplos Kore from the Acropolis
Archaic Greek Marble 6th century B.C.E
-Deities, attendants to deities and priestesses
-Art historians believe she is a deity
-possibly Artemis goddess of the hunt
Greek Classical Period
480-323 BCE (5th cent. BCE)
- when the Greeks defeated the Persians ending when Alexander the Great dies
-sculptures become more lifelike
-something changed when they defeated Persia led them to be more brave and bold in the art
Kritos Boy
-found in the Athenian Acropolis dump
-Persians sacked Acropolis and tossed him out
-Perfection of human anatomy in marble
-Contrapposto (counterbalance)
1. Weight on one leg. Other leg relaxed slightly bent knee
2. Slight tilt to the hips and shoulders
3. Twist and curve to the hips
Greek Architectural Orders
-Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
- consist design elements for a Greek temple
-systems of independent parts based on mathematical ratios
-beauty through rational thinking
Doric
-entablature is divided into alternating triglyphs and metopes
-simple rounded, pillow like, capital on column
-more masculine proportions/ bigger columns
Ionic
-entablature includes a continuous relief frieze
-volute or scroll-like capital
-feminine proportions/ thinner columns
-have a base
Pediment (Greek temple)
triangular area formed by the slope of the roof at the short ends of the temple.
- Key place for decorative sculpture
Metope (Greek temple)
panel between the triglyphs in a Doric frieze, often sculpted in relief
Athenian Democracy
-rotating assembly of randomly chosen citizens
-Rule by the people
relief sculpture
Sculpture that projects from a flat background
Grave Stele of Hegeso
Late 5th century BCE
-funerary stele
-Most women were confined to the home.
- Hegeso imprisoned in a domestic setting for eternity
- mention of her father on the inscription
-very good illusion of depth w/ the chair
-drapery on both sides of chair and foreshortened foot
Contrapposto pose
the shift of the weight of the body to one leg (weight leg) which results in the shoulders and hips to be at opposite angles, and creating an S curve through the spine.
Greek High Classical Period
c. 450-400 BCE
The Rise and Fall of Athens
-Athens becomes political and cultural center of Greece
-Perikles: Athenian general, patron of the arts in service of the state
-Phidias: Perikles' chief artist- "art director" for the acropolis rebuild.
-High classical ends w/ Spartas defeat of Athens in Pelopenesian War
Spear Bearer (Doryphoros)
by Polykleitos
-Roman marble copy of High Classical bronze original 6'11"- would have held a spear.
-Polykleitos made this to display his new canon of ideal human proportions (math is the path to beauty)
- contrapposto stance
-System of basic units of measurement and interdependent ratios
-Influenced by Pythagoras' theory of musical scale ratios
-the beauty of Greek art is not an accident
The Acropolis
Pheidias. Athens, Greece High Classical 5th century BCE
-"city on the hill" devoted to Athena
-Destroyed by Persians. Kept in ruins as reminder
-a generation later Athens is very wealthy and has defeated Persia
-Perikles convinces Athenians to rebuild Acropolis
-Monument to Athenian democracy: public works project voted on by the assembly
-funded by Delian treasury (money taken from all the city states)
-sacred pilgrimage-- aesthetic and spiritual reward
- The Parthenon temple, the Erechtheion and the Entry Gate are all rebuilt
The Parthenon
Iktinos and Kallikratos. 5th century BCE High Classical temple
-Pheidias was a renowned sculpture, directed the rebuilding
-Iktinos combined Doric and Ionic elements
-Rebuilt larger and grander on previous foundation
-A temple to the Athenians greatness as much as to Athena
-Finest material were used.
-Pheidias' 40ft tall Athena in dimly lit interior room
-temple was built around the statue
- had refinements (slight curves) which illustrate it's artistry.
The Greek Late Classical Period
4th century BCE
1. Sparta defeats Athens
2. Athens loses its political power but remains center of cultural production
3. Reign of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
-student of Aristotle
-father was worshiped as a hero upon his death
-inherits throne at 20
-united the Greek city states
-Beat the Persians (huge and old rivals)
-precursor to Roman semi-divine emperors
-Expands Greek culture to India's borders
-cultural exchange
-dies of fever in 323 BCE in Babylon
-failed to declare successor
-Greek empire fractures
Developments in figural sculpture during Late Classical
-new cultural ideas result in new canons
-Praxiteles and other uniquely styled sculptors
-nude females
-more relaxed less balanced
-8 heads tall
-conceptual distance between gods and humans is shrinking
-sculptures began to invade our space
Hellenistic Period
323-30 BCE
-began with the death of Alexander the Great
-art reflects life:anxiety, societal imbalance, intense emotion, drama
-classicism declines
The Etruscans
- have a big after life concern as seen in their tombs, made from permanent materials.
- believe in versions of the gods and goddess of Greeks
- temples influenced by Greeks by with some changes
Etruscan Apulu of Veii
Terracotta sculpture meant for the rooftop of an Etrucan temple.
- conveys the energy and life of Etruscan people
Tumulus (Etruscan)
An artificial mound of earth and stones placed over a grave
- meant to look like a house inside
- carved out of the local tufa
Temple of Minerva (Athena)
Etruscan temple reconstruction
- Etruscans made temples of baked brick and wood (perishable and thus lost)
- Temple had 3 rooms for a trio of worshiped gods
- Temple had podium and front emphasis that was uniquely Etruscan
- Temple has terracotta sculptures on top of the roof
Roman Architecture
during the period of the Empire, it was designed to symbolize Rome's power and grandeur.
It was all about SPACE- includes vaults, arches, domes.
Aqueduct
A raised channel used to carry water from mountains into cities
The Roman Republic
The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate.
- Plebians (regular class) and Patricians (elite class)
- Time of Veristic bust portraits.
Head of a Patrician
Veristic (super real) head portrait based off of Roman death wax cast translated into stone.
- Would have shown the family's right to Patrician (elite) status by birthright
- Would have been displayed proudly in the home and paraded at funerals.
- Roman "head" first emphasis in art.
Pompeii
Town covered by volcanic ash after the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79CE.
- The source of much art and architecture for historians of the Roman period.
Pax Romana
-end of civil wr leads to 200 year period of relative peace except at frontiers of expanding empire
-ushers in a golden age like 5th century BCE Athens
-created by Augustus (Julius Caesar's grand nephew) = messiah figure
-paves the way for Roman acceptance of Christianity
Augustus of Primaporta
Imperial Roman, marble, slightly larger than life, early 1st century CE
-marble copy of bronze original
-found in his wife's villa
-used as propaganda- idealized, youthful, powerful, capable
-a likeness not a portrait
-ruled for 40 years, yet does not show age
-directly based on Polyklietos' Canon of proportion of the "Spearbearer."
-bare foot like a god
-came from a war but brings peace
Roman Arch and vaulted architecture
-self-supporting sculpture. Outward and downward support of architectural thrust.
-large interiors w/out posts or columns
-buttresses allows for even taller vaulted spaces
-barrel vault, groin vault and dome
dome
a rounded vault forming the roof of a building or structure, typically with a circular base.
Flavian Amphitheater
Imperial Rome, Flavian Dynasty, marble faced cement amphitheatre. Late 1st century CE
-Emperor Titus completed it. largely built by his father Emperor Vespasian
-funded by the spoils of Jerusalem
-"Arena' latin word for sand (to soak up all the blood.)
-built on top of Nero's drained private lake
-called the Colosseum because originally the "Colossus of Nero" statue stood near it.
-110 day opening ceremony
-9,000 wild animals and 2,000 gladiators killed
-trained animals, acrobats, and mock dea battles

Exterior design
-three arcades
-engaged columns
-Greek orders as pure decoration cast cement structure
-used both vaulting and post and lintel arch

-tunnels and cells beneath floor
-social hierarchy expressed in seating (top to bottom): women slave foreigners, freemen, senators, imperial family
-designed to flow human traffic very quickly with tons of entrances and exits
-barrel vaulted construction allows huge interior spaces uninterrupted by columns
-retractable awning
Trajan
-Spanish. First non-Italian born emperor
-expanded empire to its largest size
-began construction on last and largest Imperial forum in Rome
Trajan's Forum
rome 2nd century CE
-designed by Apollodorus of Damascus
-A of D was his chief military leader and architect
-paid for with the spoils of the defeat of the Dacians
-parts: forum, market, basilica, Trajans column
-enter through forum of Augustus. Trajans is nearly twice as large
-Trajan's market making up for razed businesses
-over 150 shops in the market
-Basilica Ulpa, courthouse
-Roman Basilicas were precursors to christian churches
Roman Religion
Polytheistic. Influenced by Greek religion. Had gods with nearly the same names, and had patron deities.
- INCLUDED emperors after their death.
Trajan's column
-125ft tall
-made of hollow marble drums. interior spiral staircase. Trajan's tomb
-Glorifies trajan's victory over the Dacians and roman engineering
Pantheon
High Imperial, 2nd century CE Marble Faced concrete
-possibly dedicated to divine emperors
-Unknown architect. usually said to designed during the reign of Hadrian
-Had been the sight of two previous pantheons that were destroyed by fires
-design is unified by repetition of circle square motifs inside out
-still world largest unreinforced concrete dome. 142 ft wide and tall
-thick and concrete formula changes near top of dome
-dome tapers to reduce weight- transition of rocks
-bronze pediment sculptures- melted down
-focus on interior seems typical from outside
-originally elevated
-within human-scope. the entire cosmos within human comprehension/ grasp
-Roman's destiny and ability to conquer the world
-circular room is a rotunda
-alt. niches with statues
-30ft wide oculus
-disk of light
-coffers were to lighten the load and add visual complexity
-made to look like cosmos
-spherical design
Concrete
-sand, rubble and lime = ingredients.
- dominant building material after Nero's fire burns down much of Rome
-Cheap, light, easy to transport
- malleable, shape-able!
-Always would be covered with marble or brick or stone
-protection from elements
Constantine
Emperor of the Roman Empire who moved the capital to Constantinople. He eventually converted to Christianity as well.
The Late Roman Empire
3rd-4th centuries
-Commodus is assassinated
-Germanic tribes (goths) begin to settle in Rome
-Caracalla's portraits reflect times
- calm beauty and balance of classicism begins to disappear from Roman art in numerous ways
Roman painting
...
Dying Warrior (West Pediment) , Greek Archaic
Kritios Boy, Greek Early Classical
Charioteer of Delphi, Greek Early Classical
Spearbearer (Doryphoros), Greek Mature Classical
Parthenon, Greek Mature Classical
Lapith Fighting a Centaur, Greek Mature Classical
Aphrodite of Knidos by Praxiteles, Greek Late Classical
Apoxyomenos (Scraper), Greek Late Classical
Dying Gaul, Greek Hellenistic
Nike of Samothrace, Greek Hellenistic
Laocoon and His Sons, Greek Hellenistic
Sarcophagus of the Spouses, Etruscan
Etruscan
Tomb of the Reliefs
Etruscan
Temple of Fortuna Virilis, Roman
Garden Scene, Villa of Livia, Roman
Ixion Room, 70 CE, fresco,Roman Art
Augustus of Primaporta, Roman
Pont du Gard Aqueduct, Roman
Colloseum (Rome)
Arch of Titus, Rome
Column of Trajan, Rome
Pantheon, Rome
Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, Roman
Four Tetrarchs, Roman
Arch of Constantine, Rome
Style Dates for Exam 2
Greek Art- 900 BCE- 31 CE
Etruscan Art 700-509 BCE
Roman Art 509 BCE- 395 CE
Parthenon Pediments, The Three Goddesses, Greek Mature Classical

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