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Unit 2 Midterm - HEPINGER
Terms in this set (248)
Philosophy, rhetoric (speech and debate), history, etc...
word meaning rebirth, a significant cultural movement from 14th to 17th centuries with huge innovations in art, music, literature, and intellect
Leon Battista Alberti
architect, showed ability of man
a social ideal of the well-rounded personality or universal person
Commercial and defensive alliance along coast of northern Europe, to protect economic privileges of coastal cities and states visited by merchants
Prominent banking family from the Republic of Florence, founded most successful European bank of the 15th century
The Three Estates
1st = clergy
2nd = nobility
3rd = commoners
The Book of the Courtier, describes how to be a perfect courtier
Conquered Milan after the death of the last Visconti, established himself as duke of the city
The first of the Medici political dynasty, he took control of the Republic of Florence and made it his oligarchy
Lorenzo the Magnificent (de'Medici)
A leading citizen of Florence, he contributed large sums of money to artists so they could create master works of art
Federigo da Montefeltro
Ruler of Urbino, known as a great patron of Renaissance culture
known as "the first lady of the world," she was widely known for her wisdom, intellect, and clever negotiations
Peace of Lodi
a peaceful, 40 year era in Italy after 50 years of warfare, created alliance system (Milan, Florence, and Naples vs. Venice and The Papacy)
Florentine diplomat and Republican, sent into exile after Medici family returned to power, wrote The Prince (better to be feared than loved)
Characteristic of Italian Renaissance
Characteristic of Italian Renaissance
study of classical works of Greece and Rome
One of Europe's greatest lyric poets. Wrote in vernacular Italian, known as the Father of Humanism
humanism that includes involvement in politics with intellect, civic spirit and pride
translation of Plato and exposition of Neoplatonism
Platonic philosophy, based on the ideas of hierarchy of substance and spiritual love
set of beliefs stressing astrology, alchemy, and magic as well as theological and philosophical speculations
God as a whole is in all things
Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola
A prominent Italian intellect, wrote Oration on the Dignity of Man, unlimited potential of human
Early Italian renaissance painter, painted Tribute Money, large 3D figures
Italian painter interested in Greek and Roman mythology
Italian sculptor, created life-size statue David, shown with the head of Goliath at his feet
Architectural monuments of Roman antiquity, designed Dome of Duomo and the Church of San Lorenzo
realism -> ideal, Mona Lisa & Last supper
ideal of beauty, School of Athens
Neoplatonism, Sistine chapel & David
Jan Van Eyck
1st to use oil paint
King Louis XI
developed French territorial state
1st Tudor king, end private wars of nobility
Isabella of Castile & Ferdinand of Aragon
Marriage united Spain
Tried to centralize administration in HRE
3rd French invasion of Italy
1st ruler of Russia
Sultan Mehmet II
Ottomans conquered Constantinople
believed that Bible should be sole authority
John Hus (Hussites)
attacked excessive power of papacy and corruption of clergy
general council of church receives authority from God, everyone (including Pope) is under God
"warrior pope", drove French out of Italy
promote family interests
Pope Alexander VI
controversial, had children even though he was a Pope; Spanish
Goal was to reform Christianity through education. Focused on early church fathers like St. Augustine.
The greatest Christian humanist. His book, Praise of Folly, mocks monks as hypocrites. Handbook of a Christian Knight reflected his preoccupation with religion.
Wrote Utopia, which reflected communist ideas.
The wealthy held high church positions, corruption, etc.
Pluralism and absenteeism
Nobles held multiple church positions, and as a result would neglect their duties.
Stressed the need to follow Jesus. Wrote Imitation of Christ, book about how well we should live.
Justification by faith and good works, transubstantiation, scripture and tradition, priests serve as conduit to God
In his early life he was pressured to become a lawyer by his father. After surviving a storm, he promised to give his life to God and become a monk. Worried about whether he would be saved through confession, and believed salvation came from faith alone.
Excellent at selling indulgences. Luther criticized him.
Disputato (lecture or debate) written by Martin Luther that criticized the church and asked forbidden questions.
Leipzig Debate (1519)
Luther opposes the church. Jon Eck compares Luther to a heretic.
Luther breaks from the church and calls for Germany to overthrow papacy.
Salvation by faith alone
Luther believed that pretending to be a follower of God is nothing without faith.
Priesthood of all believers
Through Christ, everyone has access to God in the same way a priest does.
Luther believed in following the Bible solely.
Bondage of the Will
Book written by Luther that questions humanity's free will. Says that we don't truly have free will because God's will is unwavering. Opposes ideas of Erasmus.
Edict of the Worms
By this decree, Luther was outlasted and his works were burned. He went to hide in Wartburg.
Strong supporter of Luther. Helped him organize and taught Greek and Hebrew.
The Peasants' War of 1524-1525
This war stemmed from discontent among the lower class regarding abuse and taxes. Luther agreed, but supported the nobles to win them over because he needed support to move his religion forward.
Luther believed in real presence, but not this. (Bread and wine represent Christ's blood and body).
Relied on the state to organize his churches.
Named divine service, it focused on the Bible and preaching. Vernacular.
King of Holy Roman Empire.
Charles V versus France, Papacy, and Turks.
Because of this, Charles lost time and Luther gained time to grow.
Pope Clement VII
Joined Francis I in the 2nd Hasburg-Valois War. Acted against religion interests in favor of political ones. Feared Charles V power in Italy. After Rome was attacked, this pope called for peace.
Suleiman the Magnificent
Ottoman Turk Leader. Under his command, the army pushed up to Vienna, threatening Charles V and the Holy Roman Empire.
Schmalkaldic League / Wars
Charles V demanded that Lutherans convert to Catholicism. 8 princes and 11 cities of Germany banded together. After fifteen years of preoccupation, Charles turned his attention to the Lutherans. With odds looking grim, the German Protestants asked King Henry II of France for assistance, and Charles gave up.
Peace of Augsburg
Turning point for reformation. Lutherism was granted equal standing with Catholicism.
Led Swedish barons in overthrowing Scandinavia. Became king of Sweden and established Lutherism.
Independent of H.R.E., 13 self governing States known as cantons.
Christian humanist that started Reformation in Switzerland. Looked to state to govern churches in Zurich. Abolished paintings, music, saints, etc.
State plays role in churches
"Rebaptized". Consisted mostly of lower class. Rejected Reformation. Believed in separation of church and state. Believed adults should choose own religion.
Believed end of world was coming.
Divorced Catherine of Aragon, initiated English Reformation. Had six wives.
This man was the highest English church official. Henry sought annulment for his marriage.
first archbishop of the Church of England, wrote The Book of Common Prayer
King's Principal Secretary
married Henry VIII after his marriage with Catherine was annulled. Gave birth to another girl
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Henry VIII disbanded all monasteries.
Successor of Henry
Church under Edward
Churches become plain/boring
name given to Mary Tudor because of the many Protestants she burned at the stake.
Protestant reformer who believed in predestination
Reading scripture and preaching only.
the Swiss city where Calvin was asked to establish a Christian community
A special body for enforcing moral discipline
Humanist methods of education. Available to classes other than nobility.
Protestant effect on popular culture / holy days
Much less holy days. Extremists tried to eliminate all forms of entertainment.
Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation; reformed and revived Catholic doctrine.
Ignatius of Loyola
Founded the Jesuits. "Soldier of Christ". Spanish nobleman soldier
Jesuits/schools/turning back Protestantism
Reputation for academic excellence.
Was a friend of Ignatius Loyola and a Jesuit missionary in India and Japan.
Pope Paul III
Called for the council of Trent to address emerging Protestant theologies
Council of Trent
Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings, forbade the sale of indulgences (1545)
French Calvinists, all levels of society. Nearly half of nobles joined. Threat to monarchy.
French Wars of Religion
Towns hated the monarchy, Fr. Development came to a standstill.
Henry of Navarre/Henry IV
The Huguenot political leader. Surrenders to Catholicism, passes edict of Nantes. Eventually killed.
War of Three Henries
Henry duke of Guise took place of Henry III(king of France). Henry III assassinated duke of guise and sided with Henry of Nevarre. (1585-1589)
Edict of Nantes
1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
Wants to exercise political control
Revolt over religion happened here ( Calvinism vs Catholicism )
William of Orange
Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.
Pacification of Ghent
alliance of the Habsburgs Netherlands
Queen Elizabeth I
Queen of England. Second Tudor female to rule. Daughter of Henry VIII
Mary Queen of Scots
Catholic, in line for throne. Executed by Elizabeth despite reluctance.
Protestants in England inspired by Calvinist ideas
Elizabeth avoided war with Spain at all costs, but supported enemies of Spain.
The great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588; defeated by the "protestant winds" and fire ships.
A political system in which a ruler holds total power.
As the Dutch took over global trade during the 17th century, this Dutch city became the most important commercial and banking center in Europe
(1593-1656) was an Italian Early Baroque painter, today considered one of the most accomplished painters in the generation influenced by Caravaggio. In an era when women painters were not easily accepted by the artistic community, she was the first female painter to become a member of the Accademia di Arte del Disegno in Florence.
Art that originated in Rome and is associated with the Catholic Reformation- characterized by emotional intensity, strong self-confidence, spirit- meant to inspire the masses
Bill of Rights
Gave Parliament solidified power, made it so the monarch could not do anything without consent of parlaiment.
Defender of Divine-right Monarchy.
First phase of the Thirty year's war, started in the states of Habsburg's territories.
A member of the old aristocracy in Russia, next in rank to a prince.
Group of German territories, ruled by the Hohenzollern family, that became one of Europe's most powerful states in the seventeenth century. Its military strength was supported by its hereditary landowners who were granted autonomy in their territories.
(1602-1661) Richelieu's successor as chief minister for the next child-king, the four-year-old Louis XIV.
Chief minister to King Louis XIII
(1625-1649) Stuart king who brought conflict with Parliament to a head and was subsequently executed.
(1660-1685) Stuart king during the Restoration, following Cromwell's downfall.
This Swedish king was the primary opponent of Peter the Great in the Great Northern War of the early 1700s
Defenestration of Prague
(1618) The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.
Divine Right Monarchy
The belief that a monarch's power derives from God and represents Him on earth. King holds absolute power.
Dutch Golden Age
Dutch farming, advanced shipping, unified political leadership, profitable banking, seaborne empire, religious toleration all factors for success. Decline due to death of William III (stadtholder), decline of naval and fishing industry.
Dutch artists were neither classical nor Baroque, they were interested in the realistic portrayal of secular everyday life.
Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color (1541-1614)
Emperor Ferdinand II
Holy Roman Emperor from 1619-1637 and a member of the House of Habsburg; suppressed Protestants during 30 Years War and was a backer of the Counter Reformation.
English Civil War
(1642-1651) Armed conflict between royalists and parliamentarians, resulting in a victory of Pro-Parliament forces and the execution of Charles I.
Frederick William the Great Elector
leader of Prussia (a German state), built a large and efficient army that became the forth largest army in Europe and made Prussia a major power
French art style committed to the classical values of the high renaissance.
Class of powerful, well-to-do people who enjoy a high social status
A bloodless revolt in England against Catholic King James II that led to his overthrow and the appointment of Protestant daughter Mary to the throne. These events in England allowed many colonists in America to get rid of hated officials too
Great Northern War
Russia, Poland, Denmark vs. Sweden
King of Sweden during the 30 years war. Made Sweden a great military power. Aided Protestants in Germany.
Charles I Catholic and French wife
"The Terrible"; Russian ruler; cruel and tyranical; murdered nobility; extremely paranoid (killed his own son); taxed people heavily; took title of "czar"
(1633-1701) Fourth and final stuart king; succeeded Charles II; overthrown in Glorious Revolution; ruled England 1685-1688.
A french playwright who wrote comedies satirizing pompous scholars, social climbers, false priests, and quack physicians. Aimed more at humankind in general rather than specific regimes.
An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.
wrote tragedies set in Greece or Rome that celebrated the new aristocratic virtues that Louis aimed to inculcate: a reverance for order and self-control, characters regal or noble, lofty language, aristocratic behavior
John Locke Two Treatises of Government
social contract- the duty to protect natural rights
King James I
1566-1625 King James I of England claimed political legitimacy through the "divine right of kings"
League of Augsburg
Alliance between Spain, HRE, United Provinces, Sweden, and England to fight the French.
Radical religious revolutionaries-sought social and political reforms, a more egalitarian (equal) society.
(1640 - 1660) English Parliament which met off and on for twenty years due to religious and civil problems. Occurs during the English Civil War.
Lope de Vega
Wrote more than 1,500 plays, including witty comedies and action-packed romances.
Cromwell disbanded parliament and took this title when parliament moved to quit funding the New Model Army
Absolute Monarch (1643-1715). Known as the Sun King. His reign "started" when he was four years old.
Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poese and compression of space.
during 30 years war, there was an increase in firearms & canoons; greater mobility in tactics; better trained armies
Life, Liberty, and Property. Idea formed by John Locke.
New Model Army
The disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war.
Nobles of the Robe
French Nobles who disliked the growing centralized government. Started a series of civil wars.
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)
One king, one law, one faith
This motto of Louis XIV is a declaration of his intention to be the uncontested ruler of a French kingdom united by a single religion
Palace of Versailles
A palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles.
Angered by James I, as they were used to ruling with the king. Claimed the right to register royal decrees before they could become law.
Peace of Utrecht
Ended the War of Spanish Succession. Led by John Churchill.
Peace of Westphalia
1648, treaty that ended the Thirty Year's War in Germany.
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Czar of Russia. He was responsible for the westernization of Russia in the 18th century.
Petition of Right
1628. Signed by Charles I. No imprisonment without due cause; no taxes levied without Parliament's consent; soldiers not housed in private homes; no martial law during peace time.
Puritans and Separatists
Opposed James I due to political concerns
Rembrandt van Rijn
Greatest Dutch artist of the period. Painted portraits of wealth middle class merchantes. Painted the Night Watch.
Restoration of the Stuart monarchy
After Cromwell's Death, Parliament restored the monarchy. Charles II returns to England. 1660
tied the peasants to the land and controlled all merchant and townspeople as well on if they could sell or move or not anything at all
Edict of Fontainebleau
The exodus of the Huguenots in France started by Louis XIV in an effort to mantain religios harmony. Many Huguenots fled France and opposed Louie XIV. Revocation of the Edict of Nantes;
Founded by Peter the Great, Imperial capital of Russia; important trade city because of location of the Baltic Sea.
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
Siege of Vienna 1683
Attack on Vienna by the Ottomans which Leopold I was able to resist
group of military officers that attempted to revolt against Peter the Great on his absence
1673-excluded those unwilling to receive the sacrament of the Church of England from voting, holding office, preaching, teaching, attending universities, or assembling for meetings
1648 - 1653 French civil wars started by Nobles of the Robe that resented the increase power of the monarchy.
This dynasty long provided the electors, kings, and emperors who ruled Prussia and unified Germany until the end of World War I
The house of Orange
This was the most powerful, dominant family in the Dutch Republic, that provided many of the stadtholders who headed the executive branch of government, including the man who became King William III of England
the Orthodox Church
in russia; had merchant and peasant revolts as well as a schism; very unsettled conditions of the religion in this area
Russian family that came to power in 1613 and ruled for three centuries
Thirty Years War
(1618-1648) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a battle between Frence and their rivals the Hapsburgs, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire. "Last of the religious wars"
Thomas Hobbes Leviathan
Believed in an absolute monarchy in order for there to be peace.
Time of Troubles
: followed Ivan IV's death in 1584. period of famine, power struggles and war, Sweden and Poland conquered Moscow
Treaty of Karlowitz
(1699) Ended the Siege of Vienna and gave Austria the lands of Hungry
Vienna and the Ottoman Empire
The turks and Suleiman I were stopped at Vienna after they had taken Begrade and Hungary.
War of Spanish Succession
Louis' final war, fought over the right to the Spanish throne and hegemony over Europe.
Wars with Netherlands, English, Habsburgs
Wars that Louie XIV fought to increase France's domination over Europe.
Over 100,000 peopler were charged with witchcraft during the 16t and 17th centuries.
an assembly of clergy, nobles, and townsmen who chose Michael Romanov, to tbe the new tsar after the death of Ivan the Terrible.
The magical kingdom of __________. Writers spoke of this in books and it encouraged Europeans to travel.
The Travels of John Mandeville
a book of fantastical nature about "other worlds" filled with precious stones and gold; encouraged Europeans to travel
One of the most famous medieval travelers to the East; from Venice; travelled to the court of the great Mongol (Asia); as connections to the East were cut off, his book "Travels" made Europeans interested in reaching Asia by sea to gain goods.
God, glory, goods and gold
religious and secular goals in exploring
did not take into account the curvature of the Earth and were of little use for long oversea voyages
; charts made by medieval navigators in the 13th and 14th centuries... more useful than schematic and symbolic medieval maps; details on coastal contours, distances between ports, compass readings
accepted as the most accurate map of its time; did not become available to Europeans until the late 15th century; includes "wind faces" that show wind currents around the earth; printing of the map was important; dramatically underestimated circumference
lateen sails and square rigs
two renovations to European ships that made them more seaworthy; mobile enough to sail against the wind and engage in warfare and large enough to mount heavy cannons and carry goods
compass and astrolabe
since the position of the Pole Star was useless below the equator, European explorers used these new navigational aids
Prince Henry the Navigator
(1349-1460) Explored the coast of Africa with the motives of seeking a Christian kingdom as an ally against the Muslims, trade opportunities and extending Christianity; founded a school for navigators in Portugal and led the Portuguese in gathering slaves and gold from Africa
The Gold Coast
the southern coast of the hump of West Africa; the Portuguese found a new source of gold here in 1471
(1450-1500) heard reports of a route to India around the southern tip of Africa; rounded the Cape of Good Hope but feared a revolt of his crew and returned to Portugal
In 1511, Albuquerque sailed into this harbor on the Malay peninsula in search of spices. Malacca had previously been transformed by its Muslim rulers into a major port for spice trade; Albuquerque wanted to control this port because it would destroy the Arab spice trade and would provide Portuguese a station on the route to the Spice Islands; after a short and bloody battle, the Portuguese ruled the port
Molucca Islands; Indian islands that provides Portuguese with lots of spices; controlling Malacca made it easier for Portuguese to launch expeditions here
Italian explorer; thought circumference of Earth was smaller than people thought, therefore thought Asia could be reached by sailing West from Italy instead of around Africa; funded by Queen Isabella of Spain; reached Bahamas then went to Cuba; believed he had reached Asia; made three voyages in 1492
A Venetian seaman who explored the New England coastline of the Americas after it was understood that Columbus had discovered New World; under a license from King Henry VII of England
Portuguese sea captain who accidentally discovered the continent of South America in 1500
A Florentine, accompanied several voyages and wrote letters describing geography of the New World, gave it the name "America"
(1480-1521) Sailed across the Pacific Ocean and reached the Philippines where he met his death at the hands of the natives; called the first circumnavigator of the world
Treaty of Tordesillas
divided up the New World into separate Portuguese and Spanish spheres of influence
During 12th century, these people began a long migration to the Valley of Mexico. They established their capital at Tenochtitlán. They built their city for hundreds or years. By 15th century they had built an aqueduct; smart and advanced; outstanding warriors; set out to bring entire area around their city under their control; consolidated rule over what is now Mexico; governed by local lords, loose political organization
The capital of the Aztec people... on an island in Lake Texcoco
In the late 1300's, these people were located in Cuzco, Peru. In 1440's the powerful ruler Pachakuti launched a campaign of conquest that brought the entire region under Inca control; Inca Empire expanded to Ecuador, Chile and Amazon basin; divided into four quarters, each ruled by a governor, usually related to royal family; these people were great builders, roadways, houses
Cortés arrived at Tenochtitlán in November and received friendly welcome from this Aztec monarch. He believed his visitor was representative of a god and offered gift of gold to the foreigners and gave them a palace to use. Spaniards took him hostage, took over city. One year later, natives drove Spaniards from the city, but the Indians died off because of small pox and the Spaniards returned; destroyed everything Aztecs had made.
Inca ruler, launched conquest that brought the entire Peru region under his control; created a highly centralized state
Landed in South America with a band of 180 men when the Inca were still flourishing; had steel weapons, gunpowder and horses plus Inca were suffering from smallpox and their emperor died which created a civil war for the throne between two sons-- all of these factors making it easier for him to beat Inca; established capital at Lima for a new colony of the Spanish Empire
Queen Isabella of Spain declared the natives of the New World to be subjects of Castille and instituted this system that permitted the Spaniards to collect tribute from the natives and use them as laborers; in return Spaniards should protect Indians, pay them, and supervise their spiritual needs. This system was greatly ignored by the Spaniards and harshly used Indians to pursue their own economic desires
Bartolomé de las Casas
A dominican friar who believed the Indians had been cruelly mistreated; his work caused the Spanish government to abolish the ecomienda system and provide more protection for Indians
the viceroy and audiencias
In the New World, Spanish developed an administrative system based on rulers who exercised authority on behalf of a higher ruler. Spanish possessions divided into two major administrative units: New Spain and Peru. Each viceroy served the king and was aided by advisory groups.
not new, existed in other countries; at first, Portuguese simply replaced European slaves with Africans, but as the New Would was discovered, the New World settlers found sugar and needed slaves to work for them; led to depopulation of African countries; African chiefs increased their raids and war to maintain a constant supply of slaves
the Middle Passage
the middle leg of the triangular trade route; one reason for the astonishing number of slaves was their high death rate which was caused by this. 300-400 slaves per ship, 100 days, diseases
the triangular trade
slave trade connecting Europe, Africa and the Americas; Europe brought goods to Africa, Africa brought slaves to America, America brought tobacco, molasses, sugar, rum, coffee, cotton etc to Europe
the sugar plantations in the Caribbean; played a prominent role in keeping up with Europe's increasing demand on New World goods.
Dutch East India Company
a trading company established under government sponsorship; set up settlement alongside Portuguese forts in southern Africa, particularly at the Cape of Good Hope; was meant to serve as a base to provide food, etc to Dutch ships en route to the Spice Islands; eventually developed into a colony
Dutch farmers settles in areas outside this city; the Cape of Good Hope founded by Dias; Africa; settled by Dutch
on the island of Java, Asia; where the Dutch established a fort to consolidate their political and military control over the Southeast Asia area
Empire in India that brought about unity; came from mountainous region north of Ganges River valley; founded by Babur
British East India Company
the British presence in the spice trade in India; competition of French and Dutch
The French competed successfully with the British for spice trades in India and captured the British for at Madras... the British were saved by the military genius of this aggressive British leader
ruled China from 1369 to 1644, extended China's rule into Mongolia and Central Asia; ruled at the time the first European (Portuguese) fleet dropped anchor off the coast; peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng killed off this dynasty
overthrow of Ming created opportunity for Manchus, farming and hunting people who lived Northeast of China; conquered Beijing and Li Zicheng's army fell; blessed with strong rulers and restored peace
this line of leaders helped achieve the unification of Japan; gained power in 1603; these rulers completed the restoration of central authority and remained in power until 1868
Britain's Navigation Acts
Regulated what was brought to the English colonies from England; theoretically, the system was supposed to favor the mother country
Samuel de Champlain
established first settlement in Quebec in 1608; made French have a more serious interest in Canada
Britain's entry into the Spanish American market in 1713 prompted that British should be granted this privilege; transporting 4,500 slaves a year into Spanish Latin America
occurred in Europe in the 16th and early 17th centuries; "price revolution"; more people = more resources need = higher prices; wage earners (laborers) struggled from this, but landed aristocrats and industrial entrepreneurs prospered because they could raise rent/prices; believed this was the beginning of capitalism in Europe
joint-stock trading companies
commercial expansion of the 16th and 17th centuries was made easier by new forms of commercial organization like this; individuals bought shares in companies and received dividends while board of directors ran company and made important decisions
the total volume of trade was unchangeable; came to dominate economic practices in the 17th centuries; wealth depended on trade and resources; government protection on trade
Spanish settlers married Indians, their offspring was called this
the offspring of African slaves brought to America and married whites
the Columbian Exchange
Trade between old world and New World; tobacco, sugar etc to old world, farm animals, technology to New World
late in exploration period, made maps with wide countries on top and thin countries on bottom; lines drawn on map were useful for direction but proportion was off
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