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US HIST Diplomacy Final
Terms in this set (101)
1895 occurred over Venezuela's longstanding dispute with the United Kingdom. The crisis ultimately saw Britain accept the United States' intervention in the dispute (right to under Monroe Doc)
1902-1903: Venezuela refusal to pay foreign debts and damages suffered by European citizens in the recent Venezuelan civil war caused British and German forces to take naval action with a blockade on Venezuela. Roosevelt denounced the blockade as part of corollary; shows big stick diplomacy
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
1901: Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
1) Cuba makes no treaty with others if in endangers independence 2) can't borrow money if they can't pay back 3)US can get involved with Cuba affairs 4)US has navy at Guantanamo
1898,a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence. Support based off of econ interest, yellow press, and Maine explosion
ended with Treaty of Paris
Open Door Policy
A policy of the United States that stated China should be open to all nations that which to trade with them. On paper, the policy was aimed to safeguard Chinese sovereignty and territorial integrity from partition. In fact, it was mainly used to mediate competing interests of the colonial powers without much meaningful input from the Chinese, thus creating lingering resentment and has been seen as a symbol of national humiliation by many Chinese historians
1899 rebellion in Beijing started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
Big Stick Diplomacy
Diplomatic policy developed by T.R where the "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them and was the basis of U.S. imperialistic foreign policy.
Ties to realpolitik
1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty: UK/US jointly control and protect the canal that they expected soon to be built across the Isthmus
1902 Hay-Pauncefote Treaty: gave the United States the right to create and control a canal across the Central American isthmus (negates Clayton-Bulwer Treaty)
1903 Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty: established the Panama Canal Zone and the subsequent construction of the Panama Canal
After Nicaragua was ruled out, Panama was the obvious choice for a canal. One problem: was a part of Columbia. Colombia rejected United States plans to build a canal. US help ignite rebellion in Panama. US gain perpetual rights to canal.
Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
teeth to monroe doctrine
(1904-1905) War between Russia and Japan over imperial possessions. Japan emerges victorious. During TR's presidency.
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
Washington Naval Conference
1921 - president harding invited delegates from Europe and Japan, and they agreed to limit production of war ships, to not attack each other's possessions, and to respect China's independence
Title given to the time after WWI and before WWII; Not isolationism; US didn't join all of the political organizations but were still globally active economically
Japanese invaded Chinese province of Manchuria, US refused to recognize Japan
appeasement of hitler
turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
1932, Hoover's Secretary of State said the US would not recognize territorial changes resulting from Japan's invasion of Manchuria
First major meeting between the Big Three (United States, Britain, Russia) at which they planned the 1944 assault on France and agreed to divide Germany into zones of occupation after the war
Bretton-Woods Agreement Act
International financial agreement signed shortly before the end of World War II that created the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Established post war system of fixed exchange rate of $35 to oz of gold
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
agree on unconditional surrender of Germany
Berlin would be split into four occupied zones
discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe
Stalin pledged to permit free elections in Poland, but forestalled ever honoring his promise
Roosevelt obtained a commitment by Stalin to participate in the U.N
third big three meeting where Stalin, Truman, and Churchill came together to decide how Germany would be administered. Their goals were to establish order, settle peace treaty issues, and deal with the effects of WWII.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
advocated that the Allied occupation of Germany following World War II include measures to eliminate Germany's ability to wage war and to destroy enough of its industrial capacity to reduce Germany to a mainly agricultural state
FDR persuaded reluctant Churchill
In July 1947 with the advent of the initial planning for the Marshall Plan designed to help the now deteriorating European economy recover, the restrictions placed on annual German steel production were lessened.
Although the dismantling of West German industry ended in 1951, "industrial disarmament" lingered in restrictions on actual German steel production, and production capacity, as well as on restrictions on key industries.
-Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another
-did not live up to its aim of ending war
-erased the legal distinction between war and peace since the signatories, having renounced the use of war began to wage wars without declaring them
-legal bases establishing the international norms
Hitler and Joseph Stalin agreed not to attack each other but divided Poland for an easy win, but Germany didn't keep true to their word and attacked Stalin later
Mutually Assured Destruction
-if either US or the USSR was hit with a nuclear weapons they would respond with the same
-based on the theory of deterrence where the threat of using strong weapons against the enemy prevents the enemy's use of those same weapons
-part of Nash equilibrium
The message written by George Kennan in 1946 to Truman advising him to contain Communist expansion. Told Truman that if the Soviets couldn't expand, their Communism would eventually fall apart, and that Communism could be beaten without going to war.
policy of US to support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by outside pressures specifically in regard to Greece and Turkey
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
benefitted the US because Europe had to spend the money on American goods
A U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
George F Kennan
an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War.
X Article (longer version of long telegram) and Long Telegram
-A 1956 term used by Secretary of State John Dulles to describe a policy of risking war in order to protect national interests
-pushing the military to the brink of war in order to convince another nation to follow your demands
1918-1939 Germany undergoes resentment of Versailles conditions, hyperinflation of Reichsmark, unemployment -> rise of Hitler. War devastated Europe leaves a power vacuum. Great Depression occurs in US and Europe causing US isolationism and protectionism. The League of Nations exists but doesn't do much.
starting with collapse of the US stock market in 1929, period of worldwide economic stagnation and depression. Heavy borrowing by European nations from USA during WW1 contributed to instability in European economies. Sharp declines in income and production as buying and selling slowed down. Widespread unemployment, countries raised tariffs to protect their industries. America stopped investing in Europe. Lead to loss of confidence that economies were self adjusting
John Foster Dulles
Sec of State under Ike
Secretary of State under Truman
played a central role in defining American foreign policy during the Cold War
SALT I & II
the first treaty between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics resulting from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.'s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.
USSR Invade Afghanistan
Partial Test Ban Treaty
1963, signed by USSR & USA, bans nuclear testing in atmosphere, water & outerspace -> to protect future generations from possible gene mutations.
Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries.
were not binding as they did not have treaty status
Star Wars (SDI)
The Reagan administration at first made little progress toward arms control in other areas. The president did propose the most ambitious (and potentially most expensive) new military program in many years: the Strategic Defense Initiative. Reagan claimed that SDI, through the use of lasers and satellites, could provide an effective shield against incoming missiles and thus make nuclear war obsolete.
France tried to keep control of SE Asia, but Vietminh (Ho Chi Minh), North was Vietminh govt, South was anti communist, US helped them with military troops
Mexican Revolts in early 1900's
Porfirio Diaz (dictator and US sympathizer) overthrown by Francisco Madero (anti US).
US encourage Huerta to overthrow Madero.
Carranza organize Constitutionalist Revolt (US-Taft refuse to acknowledge Huerta until he punished them)
ABC powers mediate
Wilson say he want to get rid of Huerta- Huerta flee and Carranza take over
Pancho Villa break away from Constitutionalist and march on Mexico City
econ devastation led to refugees fleeing into US (boarder issues)
1917 anti-American alliance proposed by Germany to Mexico in WWI
San Francisco School Board
Disagreement between America and Japan, when the people of San Francisco demanded Asian children attend a seperate school.
Chinese Exclusion Act 1882
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
US and Japan will respect each other's possessions, another warning for J to stay away from China
Chinese Revolution 1911
A political revolution in China led by Mao Zedong. After several years of fighting the nationalists, the communists won control of the country in 1949.
Japan's 21 Demands
protectorate over China
political and econ rights in many areas
Wilson refused to recognize Japan gains bc violated Open Door Act
Japan had gained a large sphere of interest in northern China and Manchuria through its victories in the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, and had thus joined the ranks of the European imperialist powers in their scramble to establish political and economic domination over China. With the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution, and the establishment of the new Republic of China under General Yuan Shikai, Japan saw an opportunity to expand its position in China
Smoothing over of tensions from War of 1812 between America and Britain; trade resumed and a joint commission to settle boundary confusion was made
Sun Yat Sen
Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Nationalist Party until his death. He attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders.
overthrow of the Qing dynasty
History of Canada boarder disputes
Webster-Ashburton Treaty: resolve Aroostook war over Maine land (1842)
54 or Fight! (1846) dispute over Oregon
Alaska Purchase (1867)
1903 Alaska boundary controversy (US vs Canada) London side US
Puerto Rico early 1900's
no secret trade/treaties
Black Hand- slavic terrorist group (sought to build a greater Serbia by annexing Bosnia, aprovince in Austria-Hungary)
Franz Ferdinand (heir to Hapsburg crown and A-H empire) shot
spark chain reaction that led to WWI
A promise Germany made to America, after Wilson threatened to sever ties, to stop sinking their ships without warning.
National Defense Act
1916: Increased the number of US soldiers in the army, navy and national guard before in war
1-5: promise open world (sea, trade, remove tariffs, decrease arms, end colonialism)
6-13: self determination
14: League of nations
This part of the Versailles Treaty morally bound the U. S. to aid any member of the League of Nations that experienced any external aggression.
Highly debated in US- ultimately why not join League of Nations
Henry Cabot Lodge
Peace treaty between Russia and Central Powers. Marked Russia's exit from war. Its harsh terms intensified the Allies' determination for victory.
Espionage and Sedition Acts
Two laws enacted to impose harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against U.S participation in WW1
Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
Ho Chi Mihn
Leader of the Communist party in Indochina after WWII; led Vietnamese against the French, then North Vietnamese against the US in the Vietnam War
asked US for support
ask why self determination shouldn't apply to Vietnam
Hoover's Secretary of State, War Dept under Taft
Stimson Doctrine which announced American opposition to Japanese expansion in Asia
took personal control of building and using the atomic bomb
World Economic Conference in London
Interwar period economic meeting to discuss a collective international response to the Great Depression. The European nations proposed immediate agreement on currency stabilization under a gold standard to prevent rampant inflation. FDR feared tying his hands. The administration therefore refused to agree to currency stabilization, pushing instead for tariff reduction. Unable to reach a compromise settlement, the conference adjourned without having reached any major agreements.
1924 plan to revive the German economy: the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations in a circular flow to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. Fail with stock market crash 1929
In 1936 Japan signed this with Germany and it was later ratified by Italy. It was in opposition to Communism but actually proved to be the foundation for diplomatic alliance between these three powers. Each now had allies and pushed their demands for individual success. In 1938 Mussolini was willing to accept the German absorption of Austria which he had resisted in 1934.
Spanish Civil War
proxy war during build up to WWII
Appeasement of Hitler
took the rest of Czechoslovakia
GB and France declare war
Cash and Carry Act
Amendment to Neutrality Acts of 1935. The revision allowed the sale of materiel to belligerents, as long as the recipients arranged for the transport using their own ships and paid immediately in cash, assuming all risk in transportation
Lend Lease Act
allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S
Neutrality Acts 1935-1937
US arms embargo against all belligerents after president declare existence of war; cash and carry; forbade US citizens to travel on belligerent ships (try to prevent another Lusitania); US neutral in Spanish Civil War
Japan attack China in undeclared war
FDR not call upon Neutrality Acts (sold arms to China)
in speech call for isolation of national law breakers
(1887-1975) Leader of the Nationalist Party in China. Fought to keep China from becoming communist, and to resist the Japanese during World War II. He lost control of China in 1949, and fled to Taiwan where he setup a rival government backed by US. Also known as Chang Kai Shek.
Pan American Union
an organization of independent Americas States to meet for improved relations and better understanding
President of Mexico (1934-1940). He brought major changes to Mexican life by distributing millions of acres of land to the peasants, bringing representatives of workers and farmers into the inner circles of politics, and nationalizing the oil industry
US did not like him
freedom of seas
liberal trading practices
Four major allies: the US, the Soviet Union, Britain, and China; Roosevelt suggested that after the war, these countries exert their military power to ensure international peace.
Operation Torch and Operation Overlord
British-American invasion of French North Africa during the North African Campaign of the Second World War
was the code name for the Battle of Normandy, the operation that launched the invasion of German-occupied western Europe during World War II by Allied forces
percentage agreement 1944
churchill/stalin decide how to divide up euro
communist Lublin group at of govt
want free and fare elections with inclusion of demo leaders
Declaration of Liberated Europe
Asserted that the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live
Landmarks of the Cold War
Soviet Sphere in East Europe
decolonization in the Third World
Arms and Space race
Cuban Missile Crisis
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race. US thought there was a missile gap
1953 Iranian coup
supported by US gvmt although new Shah was bad to his own people, liked him because he was prowestern and would help give the US oil; huge source of resentment
George Marshal the US secretary of state saw Europe as very important to the USA, he saw the best way to keep them out of communism is to help restore their countries in 1947, June, and he proposed a plan to provide massive economic aid to Europe
Soviet response to NATO
1950; National Security Council Memorandum 68 recommended that the US quadruple defense spending to meet the challenges of the Cold War. Initially this recommendation was ignored, but the Korean War cleared the way for its implementation. By 1953 defense spending took up two-thirds of the federal budget.
Start in Truman
end Fair Deal
end democratic political hegemony
republican Ike win 1952
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
Korean port from which American forces launched a successful attack against the North Korean army during the Korean War
Truman domestic reform
Korean war distracted from
A term used to describe the shift in foreign policy from containment to massive retaliation. This was the new way to look at foreign policy and aimed to roll back communism.
(1823) A political policy of the United States by President James Monroe that states the Western Hemisphere is closed to European interference.
outlined the terms of surrender for Japan during World War II in Asia.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
This gave the president authority to take "all neccessary measures to repel any armed attack against forces of the United States."
after disputed attacks on Tonkin Gulf
Iran Contra Affair
Scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected
Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army against South Vietnam, the United States, and their allies. It was a campaign of surprise attacks against military and civilian commands and control centers throughout South Vietnam
Operation Rolling Thunder
bombing campaign over North Vietnam, supposed to weaken enemy's ability and will to fight
Arab-Israeli Conflict--known as the father of Palestinian nationalism, he was the leader of the PLO and the Palestinian Autonomous Region in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank city of Jericho. An enigmatic figure who was a political and military tactician of unrivaled skill, he led Palestine in war-through defeat and victory-and in peace. Ultimately, for better or worse, his legacy has to include bringing the attention of the world to the Palestinian cause
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