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the importance of sexual selection by females in speciation
One population of male bowerbirds builds elaborate nests filled with colorful objects, while another population builds simpler nests filled with drab-colored objects. Researchers believe that this demonstrates which of the following?
Do they mate with each other and do those matings ultimately result in grandchildren?
Bullock's oriole and the Baltimore oriole are closely related, but are they the same species? To find out, you could ask which of the following questions?
They belong to the same species and are not reproductively isolated from each other.
Which of the following is true of a beagle living in London and a poodle living in Dallas?
One limitation of the biological species concept is its inability to differentiate species of.
increased: polar bears and grizzly bears: melting ice
Grolar bears result from ________ contact between ________ because of ________.
Bees visit only pink-colored monkey flowers; hummingbirds visit only red-colored monkey flowers.
What observations did scientists make that led them to conclude that pollinator preference preserves the reproductive barrier between two species of monkeyflowers?
2n: n: itself or another tetraploid
The gametes of a tetraploid plant (4n) contain _____ chromosomes, while those of its parent diploid plant contain ____ chromosomes. With which plants can a tetraploid plant successfully mate?
postzygotic reproductive barrier
Most hybrid animals are sterile. This illustrates a type of _______.
reinforcement of a reproductive barrier
There are two species of flycatchers: collared flycatchers and pied flycatchers. In habitats where the two species are allopatric, the males of the two species look very similar. In habitats where the two species are sympatric, the males look very different. Which of the following does this illustrate?
"The rice plants you sent me showed hybrid breakdown. Please refund my money."
A farmer purchased rice plants from two different companies. The plants were identified as being from the same species. The farmer allowed the plants to cross-fertilize. The next generation of rice plants looked healthy and produced seeds. The plants that grew from these seeds however were small, feeble, and did not produce any seeds of their own. When the farmer complains to the rice sellers, which of the following should he write?
formation of an increasing proportion of hybrids
Recall the cichlid fish of Lake Victoria, among which the females of two species select mates based on their color preference. What would you predict will occur as the water of Lake Victoria becomes murkier (less clear) due to pollution and development?
behavioral reproductive isolation: prezygotic barrier
Three species of frogs (Rana pipiens, Rana clamitans, and Rana sylvatica) live in the same pond, but have different mating calls. This illustrates _______, which is a _______ to reproduction.
evolution of finch beak sizes over a 40-year period
The work of Peter and Rosemary Grant in the Galápagos Islands showed which of the following
Two allopatric species of squirrel would evolve.
A single squirrel species once lived in a valley. Then, an earthquake occurred and a large stream began to flow down the center of the valley. Over time, what might occur within this squirrel population?
The populations would become more reproductively isolated from one another.
Fruitflies raised on maltose or on starch are more likely to mate with flies raised on the same substance than with flies raised on the other substance. If starch- and maltose-preferring flies were allowed to breed only with other flies with the same food preference, what do you predict would occur over time?
The evolution of numerous species, such as Darwin's finches, on different, isolated islands in the Galapágos is an example of _________.
Which species concept has been used to identify the largest number of species up to the present time and is particularly useful for studying speciation in fossils?
Members of the same species closely resemble each other in physical appearance.
Which of the following is NOT a required criterion for members of the same species, in any of the common theories of speciation?
Members of different species have opportunities to meet and mate.
In a hybrid zone, which of the following is likely to occur?
The mating preferences of female cichlid fish in Lake Victoria led to which type of reproductive isolation within the lake?
speciation that occurs without geographic separation between populations
The term "sympatric speciation" is best defined as _______.
geographic isolation of subpopulations
Which of the following is the first step in allopatric speciation of a population?
Which of the following is a postzygotic barrier to reproduction?
They are hybrids and their offspring are infertile.
Which of the following statements about grolar bears is correct?
Females of different species of firefly respond to different blinking rhythms by the males of their own species. This is an example of a ________ reproductive barrier.
roots and stems
Which parts of a plant have apical meristems?
minerals from the fungi: sugars from the plant
In mycorrhizeal relationships, plants receive ______ and fungi receive _______.
lycophytes and monilophytes, which are seedless vascular plants
Which types of plants dominated the "coal forests" of the Carboniferous period?
reproductive structure: hyphae
The "mushroom" that you see along the forest path is (are) the ______ of the organism. It is made of tightly packed ______.
They produce seeds
Which of the following statements is NOT true of bryophytes?
performs photosynthesis to provide food: provide a habitat that absorbs and retains water
In many lichens, the algal or cyanobacterial partner _______, while the fungal hyphae ______.
Which of the following plants do NOT require moisture for fertilization?
Each ovary contains a single seed and its food supply.
One of the following statements about the apple tree is NOT true. Which one?
Fungi are killing frogs in Central America, reducing the need for frog control in drying streams.
Fungi are beneficial for ecology in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
Sugars are transported throughout most plants by which of the following?
Through symbiotic relationships, mycorrhizial fungi might have helped the earliest land plants obtain water and minerals from soil.
In what way could fungi have helped plants make the move from an aquatic to a terrestrial habitat?
Flowers are the site of pollination and fertilization
What is the function of the beautiful flowers of angiosperms?
birds, bats, and insects
The pollination of most angiosperms is carried out primarily by _______.
angiosperm: vascular plant with seeds; gymnosperm: vascular plant with seeds
The tulip in your garden is a(an) _______, which is a(an) ________. The fir tree in front of your house a(an) _______, which is a(an) ______.
gametes: spores; sporophyte
The plant life cycle is characterized by alternation of generations. The gametophyte generation produces _______. The sporophyte generation produces _______. The ______ generation undergoes meiosis.
cells with two genetically distinct unfused haploid nuclei from two parents
Which of the following would you expect to observe during the heterokaryotic stage of reproduction in fungi?
The pollen grain must grow a tube to release the sperm nucleus into the ovule.
In gymnosperms, which of the following must occur after pollination in order for fertilization to take place?
A carpet of moss consists mostly of plants in the ______ stage. A sea of ferns consists mostly of plants in the ______ stage.
dispersing the plant's seeds
When you come home from a hike with burrs attached to your hiking socks, you are doing a favor for the plant from which the burrs came. What is the favor
Plants fixed large amounts of CO2 into organic matter, reducing CO2 levels in the atmosphere, which led to global cooling
Which of the following events helped create the "coal forests" of the Carbiniferous era?
Haploid sperm swim through a film of water to reach the egg.
Which of the following best summarizes how fertilization occurs in mosses?
Black bread mold and the mold that rots fruit belong to which group of fungi? (Hint: these fungi contains haploid spores.
Caffeine enhances the memory of honeybees for the scent of that particular nectar.
How does caffeine in the nectar of some plants help ensure pollen transfer between members of the same species?
Roots need nutrients from shoots: shoots need water and minerals from root
Which of the following statements correctly states the relationship between the roots and shoots of a plant?
It protects the plant from damage and infection.
All of the following EXCEPT ONE are functions of the ground tissue system in plants. Which listed function is incorrect?
The layers of an onion that you remove as you peel it are modified ______. The celery stalk you love to crunch is a modified ________. (Be sure to choose the most specific answer).
The seed takes up water, rupturing its coat.
Which of the following must occur before germination is possible?
How can substances move between plant cells, which have rigid cell walls?
beets and turnips: annuals
Which of the following is NOT a correct match between a type of plant and the length of its life cycle?
angiosperm and eudicots
Most of the fruits and vegetables we consume are ______.
vessel elements: carry nutrients from leaves throughout plants
Which of the following is an INCORRECT match between a plant cell and its function?
Tracheids carry water in xylem tissue sieve-tube elements carry nutrients in phloem tissue
Tracheids and sieve-tube elements perform vital functions in plants. What are they?
A tree's annual growth rings are layers of _______.
bristle pines 4,500
The oldest living plants are _______. Your text describes one such plant, and illustrates it in a picture, that is more than ______ years old.
Plants were domesticated about ______ years ago. The first domesticated crop was _______.
one tube cell and one generative cell
Each pollen grain contains ______.
it allows the plant to germinate only when conditions are optimal
Which of the following correctly states the function of dormancy in the plant life cycle?
Cellulose fibers separate like an expanding accordion
During the development of a plant, which of the following occurs in the zone of elongation?
Modified plant stems that grow along the ground are called ______. Modified stems that grow just under the surface of the soil and display tubers are called _____. Modified shoots that grow underground and have leaves that store food are called _____.
apical meristems: lateral meristems
Primary plant growth depends on _______. Secondary plant growth depends on _______.
The spines of cactuses are modified _____. A carrot is a ______.
cotyledons: in a ring between the cortex and pith
Eudicots are distinguished from monocots because eudicots have two _____. How are the vascular bundles arranged in eudicot stems?
leaves with parallel veins, scattered vascular tissue fibrous root system
Which of the following choices lists characteristics of the clade of angiosperms that includes orchids, palms, and grasses?
1/3 : 3/4
Eight thousand years ago, the proportion of domesticated crop A to wild crop A in a geographic region was 1/5. Two thousand years later, as domestication continued, you would anticipate that the proportion would be ______. After another two thousand years, with domestication still continuing, you would anticipate that the proportion would be ______.
xylem tissue: Phyolem tissue
_______ conveys water and minerals from roots to shoots. _______ conveys sugars and other nutrients from leaves and storage tissues to other parts of the plant.
Removing the terminal buds stimulates the growth of axillary buds, resulting in a bushier plant.
Why do gardeners prune (trim) their fruit trees?
fertilization, seed and fruit formation, seed dispersal, seed germination, seedling
Which choice lists key events in the life cycle of an angiosperm in correct chronologic order?
they can adapt more easily to a changing environment
Compared to plants that reproduce sexually, plants that reproduce asexually often have all of the following advantages except that ________.
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