Chapter 9 World History
Terms in this set (60)
The basic tenets of the Islamic faith; they include reciting a profession of faith in God and in Muhammad as God's prophet, praying five times daily, fasting and praying during the month of Ramadan, making a pilgrimage to Mecca once in one's lifetime, and contributing alms to the poor
Five Pillars of Islam
A group of religious scholars whom Sunnis trust to interpret the Qur'an and the Sunna.
A community of people who share a religious faith and commitment rather than a tribal tie
A unit of government
The sacred book of Islam
Christians who adopted some Arabic customs but did not convert
Arabic term meaning "supporters of Ali"; they make up one of the two main divisions of Islam
An Arabic term meaning "trodden path." The term refers to the deeds and sayings of Muhammad, which constitute the obligatory example for Muslim life.
Members of the larger of the two main divisions of Islam; the division between the Sunnis and Shi'a began in a dispute about succession to Muhammad, but over time many differences in theology developed
Arab governors who were given overall responsibility for public order, maintenance of the armed forces, and tax collection.
Collections and sayings of and anecdotes about Muhammad
A term meaning "protected peoples"; they include Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians
Muslim law, which covers social, criminal, political, commercial, and religious matters
A school for the study of Muslim law and religious science
The caliph's chief assistant
The leader in community prayer
One of the reasons Me'awiya redesigned the office caliphate was to separate it from the umma in order to
protect the caliph from assassination
According to the text, the Muslim tradition of veiling women probably originated with
Byzantine or Persian traditions
The Arabic term "haram" (harem in English) literally means
According to the Qur'an, if a slave asks for freedom, he or she
should be allowed to buy it
Why was Abu Bakr elected first caliph?
He was Muhammad's father-in-law and a close supporter
One of the reasons Muslims sought to control Syria was to control the holy sites of Jerusalem and
According to Muhammad, the umma was
a community whose primary identity was religion
In Muslim society
marriages were arranged by the families
After the eleventh century, a Muslim who converted to Christianity was
sentenced to death
According to the Qur'an, the most important factor in determining one's identity and communal bond was
Which caliph issued the final completed Qur'an?
Marriage to Khadija gave Muhammad what advantage that prepared him to become a religious leader?
Muslim and Jewish merchants in the Indian Ocean trade used what language for commerce?
According to the Qur'an, nobility in the Muslim world was based on
What was the Zanj?
Black slave revolt
Before Muhammad, political affairs in northern and central Arabia were dominated by the
How many wives does the Qur'an allow a man to have?
Four, if treated justly
What is the relationship between the caliph and Muslim law?
The caliph enforces the laws that God has made
Dhimmis, or protected people, were allowed some religious freedom because
they worship only one God
In which of the following do we see similarities between Islamic, European, and Chinese education systems?
All three required a sacred language
The term "purdah" refers to
the seclusion of women "behind a screen"
One division between Sunni and Shi'a Muslims is the question of who interprets the Qur'an and the Sunna. Who has that authority fir the Shi'a?
What did the Qur'an say about the succession to Muhammad
Nothing. The Qur'an does not have a plan for succession.
Monophysites and Nestorians were politically and religiously divisive forces in what empire?
The vizier, or assistant to the caliph, oversaw
the army and provincial governors.
In Muslim society, merchants were
a respected part of society.
According to the text, Qur'anic injunctions regarding the treatment of women
were a substantial improvement on earlier treatment of women in Arab societies
Women in the Muslim world could also be educated, depending on what conditions?
If their husbands or male guardians encouraged it
Some Muslims have interpreted the concept of jihad as
individual struggle against sin
Muslim higher education
attempted to prepare men to perform religious and legal functions
Eunuchs could serve in a variety of occupations in the Muslim world because they were seen as
more dependable and manageable
The presence of the Ka'ba attracted pilgrims to
The most important political force in pre-Islamic Arabia was
the divine revelations of Muhammad are recorded in the Islamic holy book, the
According to the Qur'an and Muslim law, what kinds of punishments were required for inappropriate sexual behavior?
The same punishments for men and women
Muhammad died in
The hijra of 622 occurred when Muhammad and his followers fled to
Under the Abbasids and Huran al-Rashid, what emerged as the intellectual and cultural trade center of Islam?
What empire was ended in 642 when defeated at the battle of Nihawand?
Jews living under Islam
participated fully in commercial and professional activities
Regarding women, traditional pre-Islamic Arab law
allowed no succession rights
the collections of sayings of or anecdotes about muhammad are called the
The religious movement known as Sufism
rejected materialism and worldliness
The Muslim military elite ensures the recruitment of troops and their loyalty through
regular pay with a fixed salary, plus booty