Terms in this set (149)
A group of songs, usually Leider, that are unified musically or through their texts. (themes)
Aftermath of French Revolution, transfer of power from aristocracy to the middle class. Celebration of Aristocracy
Intense personal expression, interest in the fanciful..the picturseque, and passionate. German lyric poetry
Romanticism in Music
Industrial Revolution improved instrumental technology, found of conservatories, orchestra grows, nationalism & exoticism
In the Romantic era, place where skilled musicians were trained
Day of wrath; day of judgment
What did Berlioz call the recurring theme used in his Symphonie Fantastique?
Maple Leaf Rag
A piano rag by Joplin played in duple meter (repeated) and homophonic texture..16 measure (strains)
A style of music that evolved from southern African-American secular songs and is usually distinguished by a strong 4/4 rhythm, flatted thirds and sevenths, a 12-bar structure, and lyrics in a three-line stanza in which the second line repeats the first. vocal style from work songs
New Orleans Jazz
Fusion of elements such as ragtime & blues with spiritual, work songs, shouts. Used individual & group improvation. Trumpet or cornet played melody. Trombone improved chord Change.
1900-1971, Leading African American jazz musician during the Harlem Renaissance; he was a talented trumpeter cornet whose style influenced many later musicians, First great jazz soloist, Played trumpet and was instrumental in developing Scat Singing
"Edward Kennedy"..American composer, pianist, orchestrator, Big-Band Leader...Larger essemble
Duke Ellington Orchestra
played "Take the 'A' Train" (1941)
32-bar song form
-Piano intro with Ellington & syncopated chromatic.
-Made up of four, eight bar sections. Themes are the same in sections 1,2 and 4. The theme is different in the third section.
Conclusion that repeats the opening 8 bars of the piece, each time more softly..
Song structure (form) in which the same melody is repeated with every stanza of the poem--hymns, carols, as well as most folk and popular songs
Father" of ragtime, most famous for Maple Leaf Rag, uses march form with syncopation, ragtime to art form
Created national voice of America in Muisic,Ballet of Billy The Kid, classic cowboy tunes...used polyrhythm,polyharmony,dissonance
First African American to have symphony (Afro-American) by Rochester symphony...arranged radio and musical theater
William Grant Still
William Grant Still; influenced by blues..muted trumpet..linked poems from Paul Lawrence Dunbar, make it program symphony..."Sonata Allegro" Form
Afro American Symphony
a diatonic scale in which the 3rd, the 7th, and sometimes the 5th degrees are lowered
Hungarian composer and pianist who collected Hungarian folk music from Eastern Europe...Aki Dudas Akar
Piece from Schoenberg that shows Expressionism.
Tempo: Sehr rasche (Very Quickly)
Voice, piano, picolo, clarinet, violin, cello. Quick, frantic.
a dramatic style that describes a type of drama=Bright lights, colorful scenery and expressive dialogue..Paintings
A vocal style developed by Schoenberg, melody is spoken at approximate pitches rather than sung on exact pitches.
What technique is achieved by having each note of a melody played on a different instrument? (Schoenberg) - tone color
Schoenberg, poem by Albert Girand, sprechtimme, Tonal Work, sad clown obsessed w/ moon, Rondeau Form (Commedia dell' arte)
Italian comedy of the 16th to 18th centuries improvised from standardized situations and stock characters
Commedia dell' arte
Austrian composer, conductor, teacher, artist.
Emigration to US
-Los Angeles: UCLA &USC
Second Viennese School
Name given to composer Arnold Schoenberg and his pupils Alban Berg and Anton Webern; represents the first efforts in twelve-tone composition.
The Rise of Spring
Stravinsky; Adoration of the Earth..Bassoon Melody - lithuanian folk tune
(1882-1971) international russian composer. influenced nearly every composer after him evolved several distinct styles of composition in his career. (Rise of Spring)
Beyond traditional systems of Tonality. Polychords / Polyharmony
what combined C&F Major - Expand chord 6 or 7
two or more simultaneous harmonies played against each other (Bartok, Ives, Stravinsky)
Piece by Debussy; inspired by Mallarme poem..
-Ternary Form : "A-B-A"
-Weakened accents create Floating Effect
Clarinet = animated
The Afternoon of a Faun
Erlking was narrative poem written by who?
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
What sought to revive balance and objectivity in arts by returning to formal structures..Absolute music - early 1920's
Beach; Influenced by Brahms in development of thematic and harmonic materials.
-Duple Meters; Syncopated accents
Violin Sonata in A Minor
Heir to the classical masters...only made 4 symphonies due to intimidation of Beethoven
Dramatic, vivid, and powerful. Used huge forces. Instrumental music: program symphonies, concert overtures. Vocal music: opera, sacred works. A master of orchestration, one of the finest ever. "The creator of the modern orchestration" - his text on the subject is still well studied today.
Overture not attatched to ballet or opera
What multi-movement orchestral work that has literary or pictorial associations
French composer & conductor, married Harriet Smithson, Prix de Rome, Beethoven & Shakespeare
What was the award given by the Paris conservatory that allows the winner to study in Rome on scholarship (Berloiz)
Prix de Rome
Object of inspiration by Berlioz for Symphonie fantastique; was a lover to Hector Berlioz, was also the object of an idée fixe by Berlioz within his piece.
Chopin; Solo Piano
-Ternary form (Minuet & Trio)
-A(martial theme) B (Lyrical)
Employs tempo : Rubato
Polonaises in A Minor (Military)
Rhythmic flexibility within a phrase or measure
Revolved around piano; small and large scale
-Modern piano style
-ornaments used to prolong single notes
Traits: widely spaced chords
French/Polish composer & pianoist
-Career in Paris
Developed Modern day piano style
Died at 39 - Tubercilosis
Chopin met Aurore Dudevant, known to the world as ____ ____. Chopin had a 8 year relationship with her
Which German composers piano career was ended with an injury to right hand?
A gifted Viennese-born composer. Who wrote Elkring and more than 600 Liede. Died early from syphilis. His songs influenced the evolution of romantic music.
A movement in late 19th-century France. An artistic and poetic movement or style using images and indirect suggestions to express mystical ideas, emotions, and states of mind. ex. Stephane Mallarme. Influenced Debussy.
A new artistic development that rejected all accepted standards of art and behavior.
A 20th-century literary and artistic movement that attempts to express the workings of the subconscious and is characterized by fantastic imagery and incongruous juxtaposition of subject matter. (Dreams)
what concept or goal put forth by composer Arnold Schoenberg to justify atonality
emancipation of the dissonance
The melody in twelve-tone music is called ______________. Why was the twelve-tone method significant?
A Tone Row; significant because revolutionized composition in the twentieth century
The program of Debussys Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun evokes?
a pagan landscape of a mythological creature
The rhythms of Impressionist music often show ____ influences
What is unusual about the opening of Debussys Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun?
It opens with a flute solo in the velvety lower register
In which country did the Expressionist movement originate
The artistic trends of the early twentieth century can best be characterized as
a reaction against Romanticism
The element of rhythm in twentieth century music is best characterized by
a disregard for the basic metrical patterns of the past
the emphasis on rhythm brought the _____ section of the orchestra into greater prominence
How many songs are in Pierrot lunaire
Pierrot lunaire is based on a cycle of poems written by
What accompanies the voice in Pierrot lunaire
What was the name of the Paris based Russian ballet impresario who commissioned Stravinsky to write ballets
Which Stravinsky work is from his Neoclassical period?
Symphony of Psalms
What name is given to the twentieth century composers who continued the Romantic tradition?
The element that most decisively separated /twentieth century music from that of the past was___
The Impressionist turned to the open intervals and church modes of medieval music for inspiration. (T/F)
Expressionism in music took its impulse from painters whose canvases delved into the realm of the subconscious (T/F)
Neoclassical composers preferred absolute music and forms to program music. (T/F)
The element of melody in early twentieth century music is characterized by wide leaps and dissonant intervals (T/F)
Each of the poems set in Schoenbergs Pierrot lunaire follows a different structure. (T/F)
In Schoenbergs Pierrot lunaire, the principal character is obsessed with the moon. (T/F)
Schoenberg developed the new vocal style of Sprechstimme in an attempt to bring together the spoken word and music. (T/F)
Schoenbergs Pierrot lunaire is a series of miniatures for voice and piano. (T/F)
Stravinskys ballet The Rite of Spring had a revolutionary impact on music of the twentieth century. (T/F)
The opening night audience of The Rite of Spring was undoubtedly startled and repelled by the pagan rites being enacted. (T/F)
Stravinskys greatest contribution to the art music in the twentieth century is thought to be his development of the twelve-tone method
Impressionism takes its name from a painting by Claude Monet. (T/F)
Expressionism was the German equivalent of French Impressionism and had the same goals and artistic qualities (T/F)
Which of the following genres was NOT favored by the Neoclassicists of the early twentieth century
The Introduction to Stravinskys The Rite of Spring begins with a melody played by what instrument?
Stravinsky immigrated to _____ just before World War II
The emancipation of dissonance refers to freeing
harmony from the necessity of moving from tension to rest and the orchestra from dissonant sounds.
Which best describes the effect achieved by Impressionist painting
Luminous, Shimmering Colors
What nationality was Claude Debussy
The leader of the Impressionist painters is considered to have been _______
Impressionism was a style cultivated principally in _______
Impressionism in music is best exemplified by the works of Who?
Debussy was highly influenced by the sounds of the gamelan from
Indonesian word for "musical ensemble" small orchestra made up of metal percussion instruments , gongs, cymbals, drums
Salvador Dali and Joan Mir are associated with ________
Schoenberg created a new style in which vocal melodies were spoken rather than sung with exact pitches and rhythms. This was known as____________
The Rite of Spring opened in Paris in 1913 to ?
a near riot after the first performance
Which element could be considered the most innovative in The Rite of Spring?
unpredictable rhythms and meters
Which of the following was a Russian-born composer who wrote in post-Impressionist, Neoclassical, and serial styles, among others
____ was a post-Romantic composer known for his symphonic poems and operas, such as Der Rosenkavalier.
Debussys Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun was inspired by a poem by Maurice Maeterlinck. (T/F)
Impressionist composers avoided parallel motion of chords because it was prohibited in the Classical system of harmony. (T/F)
New genre, German texted solo vocal song usually accompanied by a piano (plural is lieder)
(concrete music) electronic music (q.v.) made from recordings of natural or man-made sounds (France)
a type of music based on simple elements and avoiding elaboration or embellishment
Sonatas and Interludes
Composed by John Cage, used prepared piano with objects stuck in strings to stimulate Japanese gong sounds, binary form, nonmetrical
Music produced with an element of chance; also called chance music
proceeds from beginning to end without repetitions of whole sections (follows a story line)
No story or text to hold the music together. Purely music.
what is a group of songs, usually Leider, that are unified musically or through their texts. (themes)
Adams; It contains the voices of two trumpets that are separated from the orchestra, usually performing in the balcony of the concert hall.
A leading motive, developed by Opera Composer Richard Wager
What Polish composer/conductor experimented with Graphic Notation?
Who was the first American Composer to apply serial organization to dimensions other than Pitch?
_______ are unifying ideas that recur throughout a work, undergoing variation and development as do the themes and motives of a symphony
Who created the Prepared piano?
What kind of sounds did the Prepared Piano stimulate
Gamelan orchestra, An ensemble of metallic percussion instruments.
Chord made up of at least 3 adjacent tones in a scale, based on the Chromatic scale and separated by half steps
What composer was interested in native music and culture from Japan, India, Iran, rural Ireland, and America. Used Foreign Scales
What American composer used prepared piano to stimulate sound of Javanese Gamelan & searched for tranquility?
The recording and manipulation of natural sounds
What Italian Composer found the electronic studio in Milan, which became a center for avant-garde activity?
Where did Serial and electronic music take roots in?
32 bar song form played by Duke Ellington's Big band orchestra (A-A-B-A)
Take The A Train
Who wrote "Take the A Train"
What new style was known as cool jazz, invented word mimicking the 2 note phrase?
In Jazz, a _____ is a single statement of melodic-harmonic pattern
What are syllables without meaning that are set to an improvised vocal line?
16 measure phrases used in "The Maple Lead Rag"
What was the name of the theater which Wagner's Leitmotifs funded by Ludwig II
Staatstheater am Gärtnerplatz
Japenese zither with 13 strings stretched over bridges and tuned to one of a variety of pentatonic scale
What is an arrangement of pitches in reverse order?
Genre used in Pierrot Lunaire?
Tempo used in The Moonfleck
Sehr rasche (very fast)
A song set to serious poetry, usually for solo voice and piano, in a Lied.
American musician who mastered fusion
Protocol where synthesizers could communicate not only with one another but also with other devices such as computers
Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)
Piece where Cage uses the sounds of Javanese gamelan and preserves the effect of Floating above time. Form (A-A-B-A Binary)( 16 Sonatas )
Sonatas and Interludes
What Chinese composer wrote China Dreams because he was homesick for China
Who was Verdi's source of inspiration for Rigoletto?
Leader of French Romanticism - Victor Hugo
________ by German composer Johannes Brahms is one of the masterworks of Romantic Choral Music
A German Requiem (death)
Songs with 3 or 4 Voice Parts in Romantic Choral Music
Who was married to the female composer Clara ?
A new, easy system designed for people lacking music literacy
Composers of Post-Romantic Era
Richard Wagner, Gustav Mahler, Giacomo Puccini