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1. Jayne is a 26-month-old toddler. She is most likely in the __________ stage.
B) anal
2. Stewie has developed strong feelings for his mother and views his father as a rival for her attention. However, he is afraid that his father will find out and interfere with these plans. Stewie is clearly immersed in the __________ stage.
D) phallic
3. The primary purpose of the DSM-IV-TR is to _____.
C. help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders
4. Humanistic psychotherapists would be most likely to work with their clients to focus their attention to the ________ rather than to the ________.
C) present; past
5. What psychiatrist has claimed that mental illness is "a myth" and that the labels used to identify the various forms of mental illness are nothing more than a means of social control?
D. Thomas Szasz
6. Lionel has been in therapy for four weeks now. At the first meeting with his therapist, the therapist waited for Lionel to begin discussing why he was there and what he hoped to gain from the session. The therapist also reminds Lionel that he is responsible for solving his own problems. Lionel's therapist is making use of
C) Rogers's person-centered therapy.
7 Psychologists believe that personality is largely the result of
B) multiple factors.
8. One oft-cited criticism of the DSM-IV-TR is that many illnesses seem to occur at the same time; that is, a specific set of symptoms could qualify an individual for more than one diagnosis. This phenomenon, called __________, raises the question of whether the DSM is truly identifying independent conditions as opposed to slightly different variations of the same problem.
D comorbidity
9 Although the idiographic approach to studying personality might give a very rich and detailed accounting of a person's life, the findings are often based on post-hoc explanations of events that have already occurred. This makes the findings difficult to contest. This is a problem for which principle of critical thinking?
A) Falsifiability
10 Cailee and Rick's parents take them to church every week. What type of influence on personality is being exhibited?
C) Shared environmental
11. The prevalence of a disorder refers to
C. the percentage of persons who exhibit the symptoms of a particular disorder.
12 Miranda is a psychoanalytic theorist who uses this perspective to guide her therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders. As a result, she is most likely to improve her understanding of her client's
D) symbolic dream imagery.
13. The Freudian idea of "psychic determinism" implies that
A) any psychological event has an underlying cause.
14. Which of the following is a disorder that takes the form of a bodily ailment that has no physical cause?
B. Somatoform
16. What structure serves as the social component of one's personality?
D) Superego
46. Manny has such an intense fear of flying insects that he hardly ever goes outside his house during the summer months. He is probably suffering from a ______.
D. phobic disorder
18. What theorist strongly disagreed with Freud's ideas about women and their feelings of inferiority and the Oedipus complex?
B) Horney
20. After a day when all of his students complained about the way he graded their papers, his boss doubled his workload, and he got a speeding ticket on his way home, Nick yelled at his wife for leaving her toothbrush on the bathroom counter. This is an example of
A) displacement.
21. The ultimate goal of humanistic psychotherapy is for a person to
C) gain insight and move forward in their seeking of their ultimate potential.
22. In Freudian psychoanalysis, what person was responsible for obtaining the insight into the client's psychological problem?
C) The therapist
23. Although their intent was noble, there was a major problem with the asylums that existed to help the mentally ill in the 15th century. What was that problem?
B. Overcrowding and understaffing.
24. In what brand of psychotherapy would a clinical psychologist attempt to uncover the underlying unconscious conflicts and impulses that are the cause of one's psychological difficulties?
D) Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic
25. Bart is asked by his psychotherapist to close his eyes. After a few minutes of relaxing, the therapist asks Bart to discuss whatever comes to mind and to continue without censoring any of the ideas or thoughts he experiences. Bart is experiencing the therapeutic technique of
C) free association.
26. While each panic attack is different, the symptoms of a panic attack often peak in less than ____ minutes.
B. 10 minutes
27. For those people in the Middle Ages who believed abnormal behavior resulted from spirit possession, the treatment of choice was ______.
C. exorcism
28. According to the authors, ________ is one of the most influential personality theorists in all of psychology.
B) Sigmund Freud
30. According to this neo-Freudian, the goal of psychotherapy was individuation.
A) Jung
32. The ________ seeks to find a resolution between the competing demands of the ________.
A) ego; id and superego
33. What is the main difference between generalized anxiety disorder and phobic disorder?
A. Phobic disorder is linked to specific triggers while generalized anxiety disorder is not linked to a specific trigger.
34. Conflicts over toilet-training and other attempts by a 2-year-old to exert control over his or her environment are most evident during the ________ stage of psychosexual development.
A) anal
36. His work influenced the contemporary work of interpersonal therapy (IPT).
C) Sullivan
Correct. Sullivan believed psychotherapy is a collaborative undertaking between client and therapist. His work influenced interpersonal therapy.
38. In one of Aesop's fables, a fox is unable to obtain some grapes that he truly wishes to have. However, after failing to obtain them, he downplays their importance. This behavior is most consistent with the defense mechanism of
C) rationalization.
39 The __________ could be described as similar to a judgmental parent looking down on the __________
C) superego; ego
40. Darcy is sitting at her desk in her office one day when, without warning, her heart begins racing rapidly, she starts sweating profusely, and she is gripped with a terrifying fear that she is about to go crazy. She thinks she is having a heart attack. Nothing she is doing seems to have caused such an episode. Her symptoms most resemble __
B. a panic attack
41. People who have a(n) ______ are afraid of being evaluated in some negative way by others, so they tend to avoid situations that can be embarrassing.
a. agoraphobia
b. social phobia
c. specific phobia
d. interactive phobia
43. Compared to Freud himself, the neo-Freudians placed more importance on __________ and less on __________
D) social drives; sexuality
44. Who is not a psychoanalytic personality theorist?
A) Carl Rogers
45 The Freudian defense mechanism of __________ involves returning psychologically to a younger and safer time.
D) regression
46. Humanistic theorists reject the interpretive techniques of
A) cognitive-behavioral therapists.
B) psychoanalysis.
Correct. Psychoanalytic therapists do not focus on the present nor living fully.
C) family systems therapy.
D) rational-emotive therapy.
Answer: B
24. When a psychologist or psychiatrist is using the DSM-IV-TR as a guide to evaluating a client, he or she would assess the client on each of five __________.
A. axes
31. The idea that a person may be determined to be sane or insane is an issue that is most relevant to
B. the legal system.
41. Leo worries all of the time. He worries about his money, his children, and his dog. His muscles are always tense and sore, he has trouble sleeping, and is constantly physically tense. Leo's symptoms sound most like ______.
C. generalized anxiety disorder
50. Eila is a 16-year-old girl. Her mom just got remarried to Brick, a strikingly handsome and very kind man. Recently, Eila has begun to taunt Brick about his physique and even tells her mom that she can't stand him. What defense mechanism is she exhibiting?
C) Reaction-formation
8. Any pattern of behavior that causes people significant distress, is uncommon in society, and/or harms their ability to function in daily life is called___________.
A. a mental disorder
28. One criticism of the DSM that is noted by your authors is that it adheres to a _________ model, which means that a person is seen as either having a mental disorder, or not having a mental disorder. There is little or no allowance for "degrees" of a disorder.
B. categorical
32. The ________ rule is a test of legal insanity that came from an 1843 British trial.
C. M'Naghten