231 terms

ARLH 325 Midterms

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Study Guide 1 THE UMAYYAD DYNASTY AND THE BEGINNINGS OF ISLAMIC ART
Empire created out of the eastern half of the Roman empire, which continued aspects of classical artistic traditions, although within a new religious context
Byzantine Empire (395-1453 AD)
Last ancient Persian empire which continued the artistic traditions of Mesopotamia, and as with Byzantine art influenced the development of early Islamic art
Sassanian Empire (224-640 AD)
the first Arab-Muslim empire during the years 660-750, stretching from Central Asia, across North Africa, and into Spain
Umayyad Dynasty
was born 570 AD in Mecca, an oasis city known from ancient times as a sanctuary and site of a sacred temple, where he began to receive revelations from God (Allah) and preach against the worship of the idols at the sanctuary. In 622 Mohammed was forced to flee to al-Medina, returning with an army and launching a holy war (jihad) to spread his new religion known as Islam.
Mohammed
(the requirements of Mohammed's religion)
The 5 Pillars of Islam
profession of the belief in only one god, Allah, with Mohammed as his prophet
1. SHAHADA
the duty to pray 5 times daily, towards the Ka'ba in Mecca (the direction of the qibla)
2. SALAT
fasting during the holy month of Ramadan
3. SIYAM
giving alms to the poor
4. ZAQAT
making a pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city of Islam
5. HAJJ
a square stone enclosure, built on the site of the pre-Islamic temple and considered the spiritual center of the Islamic world. The present structure was built in 683 of granite and is draped with a silk cloth, which is worshipped through ritual circumambulation in a counter-clockwise direction during the hajj, or pilgrimage.
THE KA'BA
built by Caliph Abdul Malik to commemorate the site where Mohammed ascended to heaven and stood in the presence of Allah who revealed to him the tenants of Islam. It was built over the site of the Temple of Solomon and modeled on the Church of the Holy Sepulcher (the circular building over the tomb of Christ) and decorated in polychrome mosaics and the first Islamic calligraphic inscription
DOME OF THE ROCK, Jerusalem, 685-91
a large enclosed space with a covered hall at one side used for prayer. This house was the prototype from which the mosque form would evolve.
PROPHET'S HOUSE in Medina, 622 AD
built by Caliph al-Walid on site of a Byzantine church. It was designed with a axial nave in the prayer hall, with walls filled with mosaics and the earliest surviving mihrab niche
GREAT MOSQUE OF DAMASCUS, Syria, 706-15
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Elements of the Mosque:
niche in qibla wall which marks reinforces the direction of prayer, often decorated or architecturally elaborated in some way
MIHRAB
sort of a pulpit in the form of a set of stairs, just to the right of the mihrab--from which the imam gives the sermon during Friday services
MINBAR
or Prayer Hall is the place where the faithful take up positions for prayer, often built in the form of a Hypostyle Hall with many closely spaced columns
MUSALLA
or central courtyard which forms a place of gathering and where often fountains for ritual cleansing before prayer are located
SAHN
the extension of the prayer hall as porticoes or arcades which surround the courtyard, providing a place for latecomers and a transitory space where shoes are removed.
RIWAQ
separate, usually square enclosure within the mosque and close to the mihrab, used to screen the occupant from the worshippers but allow him to see and participate in the salat
MAQSURA
tower-like structures which provide an elevated platform from where the Muezzin, and official of the mosque, would call out to the faithful by singing selected verses from the Qoran, to remind them of their obligation to pray
MINARET
a pleasure villa consisting of adjacent audience hall, hunting preserve and a bath with wall paintings of the Defeated Enemies of Islam, dancing and the hunt (royal imagery)
QUSAYR AMRA (KUSAIR AMRA), near Amman Jordan 711 AD, built by al-Walid
consisting of 2 large enclosures with apparent, but non-functional defensive towers and machiolation
QASR AL-HAIR, near Palmyra Syria, c.727-29 AD, built by Caliph Hisham
royal complex with palace, mosque and great vaulted bath hall containing a large floor mosaic in classical design and adjoining private audience hall with a mosaic of gazelles and an attaching lion on either side of a quince or apple tree
KHIRBAT AL-MAFJAR, near Jericho Jordan, c.744, built by Caliph al-Walid II
large unfinished garrison palace, in size like a palace city, designed with principle of triple division of spaces and a triconch throne room, flanked by 4 bayts (living quarters). Its facade consists of carved stone slabs retaining a fortified look but covered with vine-scroll ornament and solar rosettes
MSHATTA, near Amman Jordan, 744
prophetic of much of later Islamic metalwork in that it typifies the Islamic response to the sculpture of living creatures
MARWAN EWER
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3 Characteristics of Umayyad Art
adopted aspects of different styles from both East and West
1. Eclectic
combines different themes and techniques in new ways
2. Experimental
represent Umayyad dominance over the East and West
3. Propagandist
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Study Guide 2 THE ABBASID DYNASTY AND THE FORMATION OF ISLAMIC ART
new dynasty which overthrew Umayyads in 749 forming an empire which would eventually break-off into smaller kingdoms during the 10th century.
Abbasid Dynasty, (750-1258)
the new capital city of the Abbasid Dynasty Its location in to the east signaled a shift in sources of influence away from the Mediterranean and towards Persia. It was designed as palace city, using the symbolism of perfect geometry to represent the absolute power of the caliph and cosmic domination
BAGHDAD, the Round City of Al-Mansur, 762-66 AD
the only surviving Abbasid desert fortress, built on enormous scale and as a palace city with luxurious amenities and ceremonial aspects of design which are Persian in origins, as seen in the interplay of iwans and large courtyards
UKHAIDIR, c. 775
city built by al-Mutasim, 838 AD (west of Baghdad)- served as the new capital when difficulties arose between the population of Baghdad and the Turkish military guards. The many palaces built here would continue the concept of a Palace city, with palaces rendered independent of the outside world by integrating gardens, domestic housing, military & administrative quarters and royal compounds within a single vast walled enclosure.
SAMARRA
Caliphal palace overlooking the Tigris valley with ceremonial gate, symmetrical plan, mold-made stucco (beveled style) and figurative murals
JAUSAQ AL-KHAQANI, built by al-Mutasim
built by Mutawakkil, c.850- built with spiral mina ret
GREAT MOSQUE OF SAMARRA
Tunisia, largely completed in 836- large Abbasid style "T-plan" mosque consisting of a raised roof along the central aisle and qibla wall bay, with a 3 tiered minaret
GREAT MOSQUE OF QAIROWAN
large Abbasid mosque essentially derived from Samarra, with a similar spiral minaret with a strong axial alignment, surrounded by a ziyada, or open area between inner sanctuary and outer wall further separating the mosque from the city.
MOSQUE OF IBN TULUN, Cairo 876-9
and from here spread throughout Muslim world
ISLAMIC ART CAME OF AGE AT SAMARRA
was the wall decoration most fashionable at Samarra, showing a development in styles which move from recognizable natural vegetal forms to the highly abstracted forms of the beveled style (style 3) represents the true Arabesque design
Polychrome painted stucco
begins a long and distinguished tradition of Islamic ceramics, resulting from the influence of Chinese porcelains and celadon wares traded via the Silk route and by sea
Abbasid ceramics
metallic overglazed decorative ware which may have evolved as a result of traditions in the Hadith which condemn the use of gold and silver vessels
Lusterware
technique of incising design into the body before or after glazing
Sgraffito ware
slip-painted ware with Kufic inscriptions which unfold rhythmically across the surface, being the first example of Islamic script as major element in surface decoration
Samanidware
became a disciplined art form under Abbasid patronage
Calligraphy
written on horizontal parchment sheets with often no more than 4 lines of text and using extreme forms of stylization of the Arabic letters
Abbasid Qurans
(cursive) script allegedly invented by Ibn al-Bawwab in Baghdad in 1000-1
Naskhi
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Study Guide 3 ART AND ARCHITECTURE OF THE FATIMID DYNASTY
Shi`ite Muslim Dynasty which came to power first in Tunisia, and then conquering Egypt in 969 and establishing a new capital city of al-Qahira (Cairo)
Fatimid Dynasty, (908-1169)
followers of a form of Islamic heterodoxy which clung to the notion that only the descendants of Ali (the last Orthodox Caliph) had a legitimate claim to the Caliphate
Shi`ites
palace city designed, like Baghdad, as an expression of royal aspiration and pomp of a powerful ruler
AL-QAHIRA
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one of 3 gates of al-Qahira rebuilt in the 11th century by Armenian brothers, incorporating very latest defensive devices
BAB AL-FUTUH (Gate of Victories) 1087
worlds oldest university, intended as center of learning and Isma`ili propaganda
AL-AZHAR MOSQUE Cairo, founded 970-2
remarkable for its large size and elaborately articulated facade, consisting of a projecting entrance portal, broad stairways, towers as corner salients, and with no minarets. The triple entrance may have derived from palace architecture and suggests mosque was used for royal ceremonies
AL-HAKIM MOSQUE, Cairo, 990-1013
facade elaborated with niches with radiating designs, with Ali at the center of largest directly over entrance, making the entire exterior wall functions a gigantic qibla articulated by mihrabs.
AQMAR MOSQUE, 1125
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Mausolea occupied an especially honored place in Fatimid architecture
has over 50 mausolea following a general design of a heavy cubic mass at base, a dome at top with a transition zone between them. Many were designed as canopy tombs open to the exterior on several or all sides, possibly to get around Islamic prohibition against grand funerary monuments
ASWAN NECROPOLIS, 11th-12th century
dominated by lusterwares with many new themes with more naturalistic representations
Fatimid pottery
highly skilled techniques following earlier designs
Rock crystal and cut glass
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Study Guide 4 ART AND ARCHITECTURE OF THE SALJUQS
when Abbasid caliphs were forced to surrender authority to their army commanders from the Shi`ite Persian Buyid Dyn.
Arab domination of Eastern Islamic world ended in 945
disposed the Buyids and conquered Baghdad in 1055, expanding their empire to include Anatolia, Iraq, parts of Syria and Iran. However, they retained a Persian ethnic and tribal identify, creating a new balance between Islamic Arab and Turkish traditions.

They also forced a return to Sunni Islam, but with Sufism as part of official orthodox Islam.

Saljuq Empire split after the death of Sultan Muhammed in 1118. Sultan Sanjar ruled in the East till 1159, after which instability followed until the death of last Saljuk Sultan in 1194

Seljuk period saw a prodigious expansion in the forms, techniques and ideas in visual arts
Great Saljuks
introduces new building types and decorative designs into Islamic art
Saljuq architecture
represents early tomb tower form of Saljuq Mausoleum, which developed from central Asian nomadic burial practices and building types
GUNBAD-I-QABUS, Kurgan 1006-7
represents the dome type of Saljuq Mausoleum, exhibiting a highly developed style of brick and terra cotta ornament
TOMB OF ISMAIL THE SAMANID, Bukhara 943
represents dome tomb type with monumental portal in form of a pishtaq- which developed from a simple salient porch to a great screen which created a grandiose facade on the building behind it
MAUSOLEUM OF ARAB-ATA TIM, 977-98
details of construction evoke the yurt or tent of Turkic nomads
KHARRAQAN TOMB TOWERS, 1067 & 1086
(d.1159), Merv- Basic formula of domed square but more monumental, with development of a gallery zone, engaged corner columns, and double dome
MAUSOLEUM OF SULTAN SANJAR
represents the early development of the 4-iwan plan mosque with open courtyard and monumental domed chamber over the sanctuary
GREAT MOSQUE OF ISFAHAN
210 foot tall free standing minaret built as a symbol of victory with an entire sura of the Qoran related to conversion used as part of the decoration
MINARET OF JAM, Afghanistan, 1190
characteristic Seljuk with lofty, cylindrical form decorated with geometric brickwork patterns
MINARET OF TARI KHANA MOSQUE, Damghan 1026
150 foot tall freestanding minaret
KALYAN MINARET, Bukhara, Uzbekistan, 1127
representative of a madrasa or school for the teaching of Sunni Islam
MUSTANSIRIYA, Baghdad 1233 (although much altered in later times)
caravansarai which provides lodging for travelers and their animals, lavishly decorated and bearing a double courtyard plan
RIBAT-I SHARAF, prob. 1114-5, repaired 1154-5
elaborately decorated objects enhanced by inlaying them with copper, silver, gold and a bituminous black substance, often decorated with elaborate figural scenes
Saljuq metalwork
earliest luster ware and mina'i ware (uses polychrome enamels painted over white or turquoise glaze) postdate death of Sultan Sanjar 1157, displaying a close connection to book illustrations and metalworking.
Saljuq ceramics
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Study Guide 5 ARAB ANDPERSIAN PAINTING
illustrated treatises on medicinal herbs and treatments which were copied by Arabs painters from Byzantine manuscripts, which by the 13th century would become well balance genre scenes, such as those showing production of medical concoctions
DIOSCORIDES MANUSCRIPT
(Automata Manuscript) Book of the Knowledge of Mechanical Devices, 1315 very popular manuscript which illustrated scientific knowledge for automatic machines based on mathematical and mechanical discoveries of Archimede and other Greek scientists
ELEPHANT CLOCK
follows Byzantine precedents and style in using a gold background, with the Islamic contribution being in the subject matter and details
TREATISE ON SNAKEBITE, frontispiece, 1199
(Book of Songs) frontispiece, Mosul, 1217-19- follows Byzantine precedent and style showing an image of the book's patron wearing a silk and sable-fur hat while angles hold canopy over his head with attendants below portrayed in social perspective, with the Islamic contribution limited to details of costume
KITAB AL-AGHANI
consists of 50 episodes in the career of con-man Abu Zaid, whose trickeries depend on his mastery of the Arabic language and whose adventures provided illustrators an opportunity to produce varied genre settings from throughout the Islamic world
MAQAMAT (Assemblies) of al-Hariri (d.1120)
text of Sanskrit origin which portrayed animals with anthropomorphic qualities engaged in various activities, meant to serve as a "Mirror of Princes" as metaphors of proper behavior
KALILA WA DIMNA
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Study Guide 6 ART AND ARCHITECTURE OF AYYUBID AND MAMLUK EGYPT
after expelling the Crusaders from Jerusalem and the Holy Land, he went on to conquer the Fatimids in Egypt (beginning the Ayyubid Dynasty)
Salah ad-Din (1171-93)
fortified stronghold built by Salah ad-Din on the hill between al-Qahira and al-Fustat, which served as living quarters and administration for subsequent rulers
CITADEL OF CAIRO, 1183/4
elevated 150 feet above the city, the finest example of medieval military architecture in the Muslim world, designed with machicolations, multiple bent entrances and arrow slits
CITADEL OF ALEPPO, begun 1211
slave soldiers employed by the Ayyubid sultans who would usurp power in 1260 and rule Egypt until conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. This period is divided between the Bahri Mamluks (1250-1382) and the Burji Mamluks (1382-1517)
Mamluks
built to relate to the street and the urban context while accommodating the proper direction for prayer, while also designed to make reference to earlier Muslim monuments as a means of justifying Mamluk rule
MAUSOLEUM-MADRASA SULTAN QA'ALUN, 1284/5
begun 1303/4- complex with two domed mausoleum, again designed to relate to the street and the proper qibla direction, while announcing its presence in the urban landscape
MAUSOLEUM-MADRASA SANJAR AND SALAR
Mamluk tomb complexes built on an enormous scale containing a large congregational mosque, 4 Islamic schools and an enormous decorated portal, domed mausoleum and tall minaret.
MAUSOLEUM-MADRASA SULTAN HASAN, 1356-61
elaborately executed objects, many carrying on the Seljuk tradition of inlay with gold and silver and use of figural motifs, although with a growing preference on huge inscriptions as the principal decorative element
Mamluk metalwork
high technical skill in inlaid figures, with imagery capturing the spirit of the courtly life
BAPTISTERE DE ST. LOUIS by Moh. b. al-Zain, c.1300
symbolizes the universe with zodiac/planetary symbols in rondels around edge and the name of the sultan in center, drawn to radiate out like the sun- SOLAR IMAGRY TO GLORIFY RULRE
MIRROR FOR AMIR ALTUNBUGHA (d.1342)
related to contemporary metalwork, favoring same heraldic motifs and epigraphic style, seen in the use of Qoranic inscriptions, titles and blazons of the patron as decoration
Mamluk enamelled glass
"His Light is as a niche wherein is a lamp" (sura 24:35) inscribed on neck in enamel decoration and the blazon of patron Saif al-Din Tuquztimur al-Hamawi (d. 1345) portrayed as an eagle over a cup (meaning he is cup-bearer)
MAMLUK GLASS LAMP
large and luxurious copies commissioned by sultans and high amirs and donated to mosques to be displayed, often with elaborate frontise and finispieces with the star-like geometric designs known as the shamsa (or sun) motif
Mamluk Illuminated Qorans
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STUDY GUIDE 7 ISLAMIC SPAIN
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Maghrib (Muslim West) was isolated from rest of Muslim world by deserts of Egypt & Libya
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Muslim Spain was the exception to this rule, but still it was hindered and isolated in terms of artistic development, preferring to look back to the great works of the Umayyad Dynasty, as the last of these rulers reestablished the caliphate at Cordoba in 756 to 1031, after which it broke down into some 40 minor dynasties (so-called taifas)
built over the site of an earlier church following the model of the Great Mosque at Damascus and enlarged 4 times, using the horseshoe arches and 2-tiered arcades (first found at Damascus), to develop a distinctive architectural and decorative style based on late Roman and Visigothic traditions
THE GREAT MOSQUE OF CORDOBA, begun 786/7, enlarged 832-48, 962, 987
is one of the finest examples of western Islamic, or "Moorish" architecture, built in Granada in southern Spain. It was begun in 1238 by the first Nasrid ruler, Mohammed ibn Yusuf ibn Nasr (a.k.a. Ibn al-Ahmar), during period of waning Islamic power as Christian armies continued the "Reconquesta" of Spain, and would develop into a large palace complex comprising of an accumulation of halls, courtyards, gardens and private rooms, many of whose specific uses are not clearly known.
THE ALHAMBRA
a remnant of the old 11th century fortification and palace and the only really functionally defensive feature of the Alhambra
Citadel of the Alcazaba
the main courtyard of the Alhambra palace, consisting of a garden arranged around a large pool, much like in the design of the Generalife, which emphasizes the static beauty of water in architecture
Court of the Myrtles
the domed throne room and audience hall of the palace, located in the Comares Tower/Palace at one end of the court of the Myrtles so as to overlook the city of Granada below and vaulted with an elaborate ceiling of 8,017 pieces of inlayed colored woods
Hall of the Ambassadors
garden courtyard designed with water flowing in narrow channels from pavilions on each side of the court to a central fountain composed of a circle of alabaster lions, showing the dynamic use of water in linking interior and exterior spaces
The Court of the Lions
links the gardens of the Daraxa to the Court of the Lions and contains a rectangular hall crowned by a pair of great domes composed of thousands of stalactite muqarnas squinches whose multitude of reflections caused by play of light on honeycomb surface evokes the revolving heavens mentioned in the inscriptions below
The Hall/Dome of Two Sisters
a summer retreat built around 1314-25 to the north of the Alhambra complex. Its design focuses around a rectangular courtyard enclosing a lavish garden and a narrow pool of water running its entire length, with a mirador as part of the northern complex, a room which looks out onto the Alhambra and the valley below. Its design may have influenced the gardens and pavilions of the Alhambra palace.
Generalife
counterpart of Fatimid rock crystal carving in Egypt, consisting of small objects such as boxes and pyxides (which held perfumes, unguents, etc.) delicately and densely carved in a floriated style with close affinity to art of Umayyad Syria and with images derived from the princely cycle first established in Islamic Umayyad art
Ivory carving
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Study Guide 8 ILKHANID ART AND ARCHITECTURE
unified nomadic tribes of Mongolia and launched the brutal Mongol invasions which would eventually conquer an empire stretching from China to Asia Minor and as far as Poland
Genghis Khan (died 1227)
(grandson of Genghiz) crossed Oxus 1256, took Baghdad 1258 and was given the title of Il-Khan in 1261, the subordinate to the Khan in China and ruler of Persian lands
Hulagu Khan
greatest architectural monument of the Ilkhanid Dynasty, designed to emphasize verticality and lightness of structure, and decorated with glazed tiles which becomes typical of Ilkhanid and later architecture
TOMB OF ULJETU AT SULTANIYYA, built by Uljetu (brother/successor of Ghaza Khan, the first Ilkhanid ruler to convert to Islam) 1307-1313
documents invasion of alien influences (esp. from Far East) on established painting traditions of eastern Islam
Ilkhanid manuscript painting
from the long tradition of practical treatises, but rendered with greater sense of drama and power, as well as influences from China in details of landscape and painting style (figure 163)
ON THE USEFULNESS OF ANIMALS, 1290s
showing Mongols conquering Iranian cities, in a style which mixes Chinese, Byzantine, and Central Asian aspects with Persian & Arab traditions (fig. 164)
WORLD HISTORY of Rashid al-Din
represent a resurgence of Iranian myths and legends (in particular that of the great hunter and lover Bahram Gur) which become extensively illustrated in manuscript paintings (figure 165-66)
SHAHNAMA
illustration with complex spatial complexities and use of colors which are developing in Mongol painting, as well as a predilection for drama and violent action (figure 167)
THE BIER OF ISKANDAR
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Study Guide 8 TIMURID ART AND ARCHITECTURE
claimed decent for Genghis Khan and initiated a new wave of extremely destructive Mongol invasions in Central Asia, India, Persia, Russia, Asia Minor, even more destructive to Iran than Genghis
Timur (a.k.a. Tamerlane) (1335-1405)
mausoleum complex dedicated to Sufi holy man, built on grand scale typical of Timurid architecture, with an enormous iwan portal and multi-tiered muqarnas dome
SHRINE OF AHMAD YASAVI, 1394-99
Great Mosque at Samarkand built on an enormous scale and covered with elaborate tilework.
MOSQUE OF BIBI KHANUM, 1399-1404
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SHAH-I ZINDA, -complex of mausoleums where female members of Timur's family were buried, built around mausoleum of Qutham b. Abbas facing out to a central axis
Tomb of Timur 1404- "Here lies the Scourge of God"- designed with characteristic Timurid bulbous ribbed dome set on high drum, emphasizing above all size and the decorative effects of colored tiles in balance with the structure
GUR-I MIR
begun by Ulugh Beg (Timur's grandson) 1417-21, who built a royal madrasa and khanaqah facing the Registan, the town square of Samarqand
REGISTAN
represents coming of age of Persian painting, with a reduction of text so that the importance of the illustration predominates and new techniques of representation create a dreamlike fantasy world rendered with incredible technical skill, precision and range of colors
Timurid painting
shows extent of Chinese influences in Persian painting (fig.174)
KALILA WA DIMNA, Herat,1429
Turcoman Style of painting, Shiraz 1470s- picturesque, fanciful landscape detail with a psychedelic exuberance of color applied in complex, multi-planar compositions, often with sense of illimitable distance (see frontispiece and fig 175)
THE GREAT HUNTING PARTY OF UZAN HASAN
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HUMAY AND HUMAYUN IN A GARDEN c. 1430
Herat School of painting- apogee of Persian painting under patronage of last Timurid prince (Sultan Baiqara, r. 1468-1506) with Bihzad representing the greatest artist of this school, representing an increased spatial complexity and abstraction, and predilection for daily activities
BUILDING OF KHAWARNAQ CASTLE
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CALIPH HARUN AL-RASHID VISITS TURKISH BATH, Herat School of painting, Bihzad, C.1494
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STUDY GUIDE 9 SAFAVID PERSIA
Shi'ite dynasty which came to power in Persia in the beginning of the 16th century, taking the name of their venerated ancestor, shaikh Safi al-Din (died 1334)
Safavids
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Shah Tahmasp (son of first shah) helped establish Persia's role vis-à-vis its neighbors
in 1598 decides to move the capital to Isfahan, and becomes the mastermind of the most ambitious and novel scheme of town planing in the Islamic world
Shah Abbas I (r.1587-1629)
the capital of the Safavid Dynasty after 1597 where Shah Abbas I extended the city by creating a new Royal precinct centered around a large open ceremonial open space which was surrounded by newly constructed royal monuments
ISFAHAN
ceremonial open space bordered by double tier of iwans creating a unified facade around the plaza, creating a monumental space for markets, reviewing troops, polo or public executions, forming vistas to all the other royal monuments
-Maydan-i-Shah
the mosque of the Shah built by Shah Abbas I which was entered at the far end of the Maydan-i-shah and built following a typically Persian 4-iwan plan
-Majid-i-Shah/Imam (1612-30)
small mosque covered by a single, magnificently decorated dome with colored tiles in a typically Persian floral arabesque pattern
-Lutfallah Mosque (1602-19)
(Sublime Porte/High Gate)- formed the entrance to the royal palace complex and a major reception pavilion, built with an elevated telar or open columned balcony, providing a covered space on which the Shah could observe activities in the Maydan-i-shah below
-Ali Qapu
pavilion in the Palace garden, built with a flat-roofed portico supported by wooden columns and open on 3 sides to relate to the surrounding gardens
Chihil Sutun (Forty Columns)
tree-lined esplanade and royal quarter-- linking maidan with river (the Zayandarud)
Chahar Bagh
bridges links Isfahan to the suburbs-- has pavilions built on to provide vantage points to watch regatas and other water sports-- also flood control
PUL-I KHWAJU & ALLAHVARDI KHAN
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UNFINISHED SHAHNAME, RUSTAM SLEEPING WHILE RAKHSH FIGHTS THE LION, Tabriz, 1515-22
the most lavishly illustrated Shahnama in all of Persian history, combining traditions of Timurid Herat and Turcoman Tabriz to reach a peak of technical excellence and emotional expressiveness
SHAHNAMA-YI SHAHI (The King's Book of Kings) by Shah Tahmasp 1525-1535
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DEATH OF KING MIRDAS
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COURT OF THE GAYUMARS
Safavids turned cottage industry into a national one as Shah Abbas I founded factories in Isfahan and Kashan which created carpets with complex floral patterns, designed to represent in abstract forms Persian gardens and/or Islamic Paradise
Safavid Carpets
behest of Shah Tahmasp for Arbabil shrine, designed with central medallion and radiating outward with
ARDABIL CARPET (1539-40)
(designs often borrowed from Persian painting of the period)
CATEGORIES OF CARPET DESIGN
design divided into 4 (or more) plots, representing the water channels and flowering plants and trees found in Persian gardens
1. Garden carpet
conceived as a sequence of loosely linked vignettes of animals, hunters, and vegetation, which may represent the royal hunting preserve, a common motif in Islamic art
2. Hunting scenes
designed with centerpiece usually as a huge circular or oval medallion with numerous smaller medallions orbiting around it ex. Ardabil carpet
3. Medallion carpet
Vases with flowers of various sizes form the motifs of the composition
4. Vase carpet
multiple flowering sprays of various size, linked by thin tendrils, spilling across the field of the carpet
5. Floral rugs
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STUDY GUIDE 10 THE OTTOMANS
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Ottoman empire began in Anatolia from the political vacuum after fall of Saljuqs of Rum in 1308 and the decline of Mongol power shortly afterwards, conquering Constantinople in 1453 (the last remnant of the Byzantine Empire) and expanding into eastern Europe and Islamic lands to form a world wide empire which survived into the 20th century
early mosque which shows the Ottoman tendency toward the domed square unit as an architectural principle of design and the dome to cover the prayer hall
HACI OZBEK MOSQUE, 1333, Isnik
rose to rank of Chief Architect and became the greatest Ottoman architect
Sinan (c.1491-1588)
large mosque, mausoleum and madrasa complex centered around a great soaring domed mosque built to imitate the plan of Haghia Sophia, and including a range of social services including a hospital, asylum, medical college, boys school, kitchen, hostel, cistern, hammam (bath), 4 madrasas
KULLLIYE OF SULEYMAN THE MAGNIFICENT, Istanbul 1550-57, built by Sinan
architect Sinan's masterpiece, creating an interlocking volume of domes and semi-domes clustering around a central dome supported on arches resting on 8 great piers which open up the interior space
SELIMIYA MOSQUE, Edirne 1569-75
Ottoman domed mosque with interior covered in blue and white tiles from Isnik
COMPLEX OF SULTAN AHMED I (THE BLUE MOSQUE) Istanbul 1609-17
Palace of the Ottoman Sultans which organized around 4 courts which move from outer public spaces involved with administration and the court, to inner private spaces of the sultan and the harem
TOPKAPI SARAY, Istanbul, begun 1463
place for public affairs (army gathering), council chambers, stables/kitchen
Second court
more private, audience hall, library, leads to harem
Third court
private spaces of sultan consisting of a garden with small but elegant wooden structures open to the landscape and views of the city
Fourth court
wooden pavilion open to the garden court with spaces designed for knelling/sitting on floor (possible the legacy of tent architecture)
-KARA MUSTAFA KIOSK 1638
portico with an elegant interior space
-BAGHDAD KIOSK 1752
high quality blue and white ware which favored floral motifs with the distinctive feathery scroll work, combining Chinese motifs with Islamic arabesque design
Iznik pottery and tilework
imperial seal in form of standardized emblem used on official documents, forming a calligraphic artwork which combined into single monogram:
Tughra of Suleyman the Magnificent
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1. Name of Sultan 2. Title Khan (lord)
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3. His father's name 4. Motto "Eternally Victorious"
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STUDY GUIDE 11 MUGHAL INDIA
Turk who conquered central India and founded the Slave King Sultanate at Delhi
Qutb ud Din
gained control of Northern India in the 16th century, ruling over a vast territory and using architecture to display wealth and power, and to facilitate political control
MUGHAL EMPERORS
the first mosque built at Delhi and combined aspects of Islamic design with Hindu construction methods and elements
QUWWAT AL-ISLAM, 1193-98
the free-standing tapered minaret built on an enormous scale to commemorate the Muslim victory over the Hindus
QUTB MINAR
great capital city built by Emperor Akbar between 1568-80's, creating an architecture which blended aspects of Hindu and Muslim styles, centered on a Akbar's palace which consisted of a series of enclosures leading from public to more private zones.
FATHEPUR SIKRI
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In 1579 from the minbar of the Mosque at Fatepur, Akbar declared himself infallible in matters of religion, and 3 years later created his own religion, DIN ILLAHI, a blend of ideas from Islam, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Jain faith, and Christianity, with considerable emphasis on sun worship
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Akbar saw himself as the cakravartin, a world ruler in the traditional Indian/Vedic sense—the Lord of the 4 quarters, who the celestrial wheel (sun) guides to domination over all regions
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Elements of Fatepur Sikri-
or Great Mosque built around a great courtyard with a Persian style iwan and domes along the qibla wall and leading to the mihrab
-Jami Masjid
place where Akbar received petitions and pronounced judgments consisting of a large open courtyard with a pillared pavilion at one end
-Public audience hall (Diwan-i-am)
square symmetrical pavilion open except for single central column which supports a large circular platform containing Akbar's throne, connected to galleries by radial walkways, symbolizing the central place of the Emperor
-Private audience hall (Diwan-i-khas)
complex centers around the Anup Talao or peerless pool consisting of a square pool with 4 bridges leading to an island at the center, where Emperor Akbar would have been seated
-Private palace (Mahal-i-khas)
palace structure built for Akbar's wives, forming a symmetrical structure of self-contained apartments
-Zenana or Harem (centered around Jodh Bai's Palace)
5 storied terraced structure (baradari) in the harem formerly surrounded by jalis (carved stone screens) where the women could look out onto the activities of the palace
-Panch Mahal
elegant white marble domed tomb built by Shah Jahan for his wife Mumtaz with surfaces of inlaid stones in floral and calligraphic designs, & placed in a grand symmetrical garden in chahar bagh plan (4 quadrants separated by water channels)
TAJ MAHAL, 1631-48
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Mughal Painting
illustrated histories which chronicle the early Mughal Dynasties
BABURNAMA AND AKBARNAMA
new genre of imperial portraiture which emphasizes allegory and symbolism, and shows influences from European painting traditions
JAHANGIR PREFERRING SUFI SHAYK TO KINGS, 1625
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STUDY GUIDE 12 ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE IN MEDIEVAL AFRICA
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MEDIEVAL KINGDOMS OF WEST AFRICA
began as early as the 4th century and continued until the Almoravid invasion in 1076, with its capital city of Qinbi (a.k.a. Koumbi Sahel)
Wagadu/ Ancient Ghana
formed in the mid-13th century by Sundjata and expanded by Mansa Musa (r.1312-1337) who was instrumental in establishing cities of Timbuktu, Walata, Gao as centers of Islamic learning initiated a new architectural style
Mali
founded by Sunni Ali in 1464 as breakaway kingdom from Mali empire, expanded by Askia Mohammed (r.1493-1529) and conquered by Morocco in 1591
Songhay
possibly built by Mansa Musa, (king of the medieval Mali) while returning from the hajj (1324-27). In its original form, it may have accommodated mausoleum/burials in the courtyard or adjacent to perimeter walls, which become incorporated into the design as conical pillars, the traditional form of ancestor shrines
DJINGUEREBER or GREAT MOSQUE OF TIMBUKTU
mausoleum and mosque complex originally consisting of two towers, one over the mihrab (like in the DjinguereBer Mosque in Timbuktu) and one in the central courtyard over the tomb of Askia Mohammed which is believed to have risen to over 60 feet and consisted of 7 pyramidal terraces
MAUSOLEUM OF ASKIA MOHAMMED. at Gao
although rebuilt in 1909 by French colonial engineers, its design was inspired by indigenous Manding heritage and has become the penultimate architectural symbol for Islam in West Africa, using the conical earthen pillars of the ancestor shrines as buttresses on external wall and forming the key expressive component of the design
GREAT MOSQUE DJENNE
projecting wooden consoles which serve as scaffolding for resurfacing and symbolically evoke human knowledge, rebirth and renewal
torons
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MEDIEVAL CITY STATES OF EAST AFRICA (SWAHILI COAST)
peak period of development 1300-1500 AD
Swahili Kingdoms
early Swahili city which prospered from the Indian Ocean trade, developing a unique architectural tradition which combined Arabian and Asian Islamic aspects of design with indigenous urban and architectural traditions
Kilwa, coastal East Africa (Tanzania), 14th century
large Friday Mosque displaying features typical of Swahili mosques such as a covered courtyard and prayer hall (domed) and staircase minaret
GREAT MOSQUE OF KILWA, 12th-15th century
largest palace in medieval sub-Saharan Africa with a large audience hall, octagonal pool, private harbor, and enormous rear commercial courtyard
PALACE OF HUSUNI KUBWA, 14th century
medieval Swahili city surrounded by an extensive wall containing many stone houses with interlocking plans
GEDI, coastal East Africa (Kenya), 15th century
organized around a sunken courtyard and a series of long narrow contiguous rooms, with the innermost rooms occasionally decorated with elaborate plaster niches
Swahili houses
typical Swahili funerary monument with a tall pillar superstructure, often decorated with inset imported porcelain bowls
Pillar tomb
traditional Swahili city with many surviving 18th century stone houses with elaborately carved wooden doors and intricate interior plasterwork
LAMU, coastal East Africa (Kenya)
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