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Terms in this set (52)
deals w/ everyday issues
to make better decisions quicker
why should you study ethics?
morals - "rules" you should go by
ethics - how values you have help you decide the best behavior
how are morals and ethics different?
absolutism and situationalism
what are the 2 ethical systems to make decisions?
absolutism deals with _____ that you must follow no matter what
in situationalism, your decision depends on the _____
false; values DON'T change bc of the situation, the degree at which you follow them changes
in situationalism, your values change depending on the situation
if you focus on one outcome, you may sacrifice many others
Branch of philosophy that studies standards of right and wrong and which dictates action in a given situation
personal feelings, morals, laws, or social standards
ethics focuses on values, rules of conduct, rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues. it does NOT relate to what?
ethical principle - independence or freedom to make own decisions. respect individual's perspective & capacity to make own choices
ethical principle - doing for others without expectation of reward
putting the needs of others before your own
ethical principle - actions to help/benefit others or act in their best interest. may involve helping others achieve a goal
ethical principle - concerned w/ outcomes. an action becomes right or wrong in terms of the benefit or harm it causes
ethical principle - capacity to recognize & share experiences of others. demonstrates understanding of ppl & identification w/ their feelings
empathy - understanding the experience/feelings
sympathy - pity for the situation/experience
what is the difference b/w empathy and sympathy?
ethical principle - faithfulness or loyalty. trustworthiness that individuals show in meeting their duties & obligations
ethical principle - treating all ppl the same w/o regard to personal characteristics or behavior. equal distributions of benefits, costs, & risks b/w individuals
ethical principle - do no harm. related to beneficence
Nonmaleficence & Beneficence
balance b/w what 2 ethical principles often produces dilemmas in medicine - often necessary to choose b/w benefits & risks when making decisions about interventions?
ethical principle - greatest good for greatest #. look beyond the individual & consider impact of decisions on all affected
ethical principle - truth telling
utilitarianism, duty-based, rights-based, virtue-based
what are the 4 ethical theories to decision making?
ethical theory - cost/benefit analysis. greatest good for greatest number
encourages efficiency & productivity by looking beyond individual & considering all impacts (get most value for least cost)
what are advantages of utilitarianism?
impossible to quantify variables. may be biased, esp. when some groups aren't represented
what are disadvantages of utilitarianism?
ethical theory - based on premise that there are moral entitlements
protect individual from injury; consistent w/ accepted standard of social behavior
what are advantages of rights-based ethics?
can imply individualistic, selfish behavior. can foster liberties that may interfere w/ productivity
what are disadvantages of rights-based ethics?
ethical theory - based on absolute moral rules - premise that universal principles should guide all actions
mandate for respect & impartiality toward ppl
what are advantages of duty-based ethics?
difficult to ID who should determine what rules & principles of moral behavior should be. who determines duty to others?
what are disadvantages of duty-based ethics?
ethical theory - based on premise that there's an acquired human quality that enables achievement of goods/rewards that are result of wholesome practice
virtuous behavior includes perseverance, courage, integrity, fidelity, humility, and justice
what are advantages of virtue-based ethics?
few disadvantages. but concern that persons can be taken advantage of if they become complacent and trusting
what are disadvantages of virtue-based ethics?
rule of conduct or action prescribed by or formally recognized as binding or enforced by a controlling authority
governments enact laws to keep society running smoothly and to control behavior that could threaten public safety
one's personal concept of right and wrong formed thru influence of family, culture, society, peers, etc.
is it possible for moral values to differ for health care practitioners and patients in the same setting?
protect the public
what is the main purpose of laws?
suspension or eviction from medical society membership, as determined by peers
what could be a penalty for violating ethics?
difficulty in getting along w/ others/society
what could be a penalty for violating moral values?
moral values serve as a basis for forming a personal code of _____
serves as a guide for personal ethical conduct
what is the main purpose of moral values?
they involve at least 2 competing yet equally "right" choices rather than a right vs. wrong choice
what makes ethical dilemmas inherently troublesome?
false; Ethical principles, while useful, are not sufficient for problem resolution
ethical principles are sufficient for problem resolution
false; typically have no right or wrong answer
ethical dilemmas typically have a right or wrong answer
an ethical decision maker must be _____
critical to examine all the _____ in a given situation
alternative solutions must be identified/assessed
ID & clarify the issue, gather info, ID stakeholders & how impacted, principles/values maintained, who makes decision, options, best option, rationale, group process
state the steps of the ethical decision making model
what are the 8 parts of the pharmacy code of ethics?
1. covenantal relationship
2. promotes good of patient in caring, compassionate, confidential manner
3. respect autonomy
4. honesty and integrity
5. professional competence
6. respect colleagues and other providers
7. serve individual, community, and societal needs
8. seek justice in distribution of resources
what are the pharmacy patient's bill of rights?
1. be professional
2. treat pt w/ dignity
3. act in their best interest
4. serve as their advocate
5. maintain med records
6. provide counseling
7. dispense in confidential environment
8. monitor drug therapy
9. monitor compliance
10. post prominently pt bill of rights
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