Final Exam Study Hard:)
Terms in this set (46)
Theories in developmental Science
Help us understand and predict why people act the way they do
Which statement would a traditional behaviorist be MOST likely to make?
"I can explain human behavior by looking at reinforcers (or reinforcement)."
According to B. F. Skinner, behaviors that are ________ will be learned.
Pick out the example of operant conditioning
When Tiffany cries, the family rushes over and gives her attention so she has learned to cry a lot.
Which advice would a follower of attachment theory give a new mom?
"Give your baby a lot of love so that he will have loving relationships later in life."
What is the main difference between psychoanalytic theory and attachment theory?
Psychoanalytic theory emphasizes only the role of early experiences (nurture) in development, whereas attachment theorists believe in both nurture (early experiences) and nature (biologically programmed responses).
Stage theories assume that:
we are qualitatively different "as people" at different stages of life.
Piaget was MOST interested in:
young children's strange ideas about the world.
Piaget studied cognitive development by:
measuring how much children know at different ages.
In the preoperational stage, a child's thought is dominated by:
immediate perceptions (intuition).
A baby who knows that her teddy bear continues to exist even when it falls behind the sofa has mastered the beginnings of:
Which of the following is the clearest example of preoperational egocentrism?
Clifford insists that the whole family watch his favorite television program.
Which of these babies is displaying early signs of object permanence?
Biff is banging a wooden spoon. When the spoon bounces off his highchair and lands under the chair, Biff leans over to look for it.
Piaget regarded the emergence of language as:
All of the answers are correct.
During the concrete operational stage, children's thinking is:
grounded in reality.
In contrast to Piaget, Vygotsky regarded ________ as critical to cognitive development in young children.
social interaction (nurture)
For Vygotsky, the zone of proximal development:
is the difference between what a child can do on his own and what he can do with adult help.
allows children to learn on their own.
According to Vygotsky, learning:
is bidirectional, with both student and teacher participation.
Language is normally controlled:
in the left hemisphere of the brain.
What is the language acquisition device?
the innate ability built into our human genetic code to understand and use language
A child who has developed a theory of mind:
All of the answers are correct.
the predicted ability to survive.
Thought and conscious perception occur in the:
Which statement would an information-processing researcher make?
I believe that thinking occurs in steps, much like a computer operates.
Which of these is the correct order of processing in the human memory?
sensory/ short-term memory, working memory, long-term memory
Which of the following statements is TRUE about working memory?
Its function is to either process or discard information.
is the ability to filter out unnecessary stimuli and focus on what is important to us.
In Kohlberg's ________ level of moral reasoning, a person is focused on avoiding punishment or gaining rewards.
In Kohlberg's conventional level of moral reasoning, the person obeys the rules:
because they are the rules.
People who are in the postconventional level of moral reasoning are able to:
develop their own moral guidelines based on universal principles rather than just on society's rules.
For Erikson, each life stage is characterized by a particular:
In middle childhood socialization is building social relationships and being an emotional person. According to Erik Erikson, the developmental task of middle childhood is:
identity vs. role confusion; being comfortable with yourself in society.
A baby's temperament:
emerges as she develops cognitive abilities.
According to Bowlby, a baby's first social smile:
shows true attachment.
Pick out the correct sequence of attachment events.
preattachment; attachment-in-the-making; clear-cut attachment; working model
Personality is a stable pattern of behavior that is formed by the relationships of what:
self awareness, self understanding, and self esteem
In the Big Five trait theory, ________ refers to how friendly and out going we are while ________ refers to how easy-going we are.
According to Robert Sternberg's theory, relationships are made up of what 3 components?
Intimacy, passion and commitment.
According to Robert Sternberg, consummate love is achieved when a couple has a good balance of:
sexual attraction, emotional closeness and commitment to maintain the relationship.
Which of the following BEST describes Kübler-Ross's theory regarding how people tend to cope with impending death?
Dying people go through stages of denial, anger, bargaining, and depression before reaching a state of acceptance.
According to Kübler-Ross, as people who are dying move out of denial about their illness, they are likely to:
lash out at others or at God.
According to Kübler-Ross, the last emotion dying people tend to feel, before they fully accept their impending death, is:
Eros and Thanatos start out as equal sources of energy at what time in you life
Thanatos could be defined as
To live a "Good" balanced life Eros and Thanatos most
share the reality of your everyday life.