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Cultural Anthropology of Food
How food is defined, produced, and consumed in a cultural context
Communities of Practice
How people become part of the same culture
Reverence for the dead by eating them. Not an act of violence, it is an act of honor.
Food and Politics
Potlach: wealth is created not through keeping but through giving. Chief gives away blankets and food.
Used as a way to show a governments wealth and power
Biological Anthropology of Food
Studies Interaction between nutrition and biology in social context
The ways bodies change in response to the world around them
World Systems Theory
Understanding global economy by looking at movement between the core and periphery areas
Places where goods, people, and resources flow to. Ex: U.S/Canada
Where thing are produced or where people move from. Ex: Asia
Food and Colonialism
How raw materials are extracted from periphery to the core
Food Technology and Food Systems
Food preserving enabled a whole range of social effects that built world systems. Enables long distance travel
Ethical Consumption movements
Political Expression into economic capital and channels through markets. Using economic power as a way of changing politics around food
Catastrophic disruption of society manifested in failure of production, distribution, and consumption of food
Food and Global Capitalism
Global systems may disrupt local food systems. Food production highly centralized
Food security and insecurity
Food exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access. Access in all ways- afford and social structures that make food possible
Invention of canning, enabled long term storage and pre-made meals and ingredients, frozen food
Industrialization- related shift in main causes of sickness. From infectious diseases and malnutrition to chronic disease and obesity
Obesity and Context
2.3 million adults in 2015 in US. Related to health problems which causes health problems. Related to industrialization which is shaped by culture
Transition between subsistence farming to tourism. Tourism made more money so workers switched, meaning loss of farming
Substantial barriers to access healthy food. Low income urban neighborhoods that have no supermarkets. High collaboration of food deserts and obesity
Obesity: Biological and Environmental Interaction
Body is designed to store fat when over abundance is present. Human bodies evolved to store energy for brief periods of hunger.
The mass production of agricultural crops using industrial techniques, methods, and strategies. The goal: to maximize output.
Going from multiple crops on a farm to only one. Specialized agricultural methods.
Corn doesn't fit in silos. Sell corn when prices are good or store when bad
Vertical integration: all stages of production are controlled by one company. Controls production at every stage
Contract farming: contracts define quantity and quality of product. Company maintains control
Fertilizer run off, pesticides, animal waste, Hypoxia- deprived of oxygen
The Green Revolution
Increased poverty and food insecurity. Export of industrial grain production to the developing world. Mono-cropping (less food for family and community, increased environmental degration) GMOs
Lee "Eating Christmass in the Kalahari"
Biggest ox, gets rid of cockiness and arrogance. Interactions, resource sharing, creating communities, social hierarchy
Doane "Orphans in the Global System"
INMECAFE, provided subsidies, seeds, fertilizers, and free assistance
Beiser "Harvest of Pain"
Core: eating at the cheesecake factory
Periphery: people cutting the lettuce like Garcia, many people die from pesticides every year
Pollan "The Omnivore's Dilemma"
Cultural Anthropology: farmers in Iowa had stereotype that we are the corn fed people that get big
Neoliberialism: deregulation that farmers don't want. Farmers don't like government interaction. Want to be private
World System, colonialism, change in agriculture, inequality, and obesity
Life and Debt
World System, role of global organizations (World Bank, IMF), impact on local agriculture, impact on diet
Poverty: food is available but no one can afford it. Effective countries grow enough food, only goes to wealthy
Historical Processes: shifts from hunters to sedentary agriculture (farming)
Politics:Used to weaken rebellious population
Health: Child development and more likely to get HIV/Aids
Loss of productive resources: short term needs outweigh longterm
Migration: working adults leave to find money. Become refugees with no political rights
Benefits of Industrialized farming
More efficient, industrial and post-industrial economies (more jobs), cheap food, alternative energy, Green Revolution
Consequences of Industrialized farming
Decline of rural communities, greater social costs for our food, increased distance between farm and table, pollution, poor treatment of human labor, more food and less nutrition
Genetically Modified Organisms
Green Revolution. Farm families have to buy seeds each year. Increase pesticide use which increases pollution.
History of the Fork
Primarily used by royalty. Status symbol and used for trade.
Roots of watermelon stereotypes
Depicted a picture of happy slaves eating watermelon.
Shows othering, cartoon characters that make fun of their culture
Women and children in charge of dressing and preparing dead. They ate the lesser meat which had a neurological disease.
Major status item
Saved money by feeding to slaves
Technology, Napoleon offered a prize to whoever could find an effect way of food preservation.
Food transporting hurts the environment. Food produced at great distances are not the best quality.
Mexican Worker's eating practices
Didn't have time to eat. Labor practices influence eating practices
Corn subsidies and high fructose corn syrup
Overproduction of corn had to be used so they turned it into sugar. Industrial agriculture
Made to suit genders (Hungry Man). High weight gain and malnourishment
Having heart burn is normal, drinking is normal, drive through weddings. You can eat anything you want without getting sick
Government forces diet on Arizona population, causing them to become very obese while Mexico population remains healthy
Organized attempt to guaranteed certain wages and conditions for luxury. Marketing technique.
SNAP food stamps
Stereotype: take advantage of welfare, minorities, single moms
Reality: Parents have minimum wage jobs, kids benefit most
Greenhalgh "Weighty Subjects"
Pressure for the perfect body. Hollywood. Results in producing dangerous body practices, tormented selves, and socioemotional suffering on a vast scale
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