Sociology PPT 5

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Socialization
the process through which people learn their culture's basic norms, values, beliefs, and appropriate behaviors.
Agents of socialization
are people and groups who teach us about our culture.
Family
Melvin Kohn: working-class parents versus
middle-class parents

Cultural differences in parenting styles
School
Conveys a hidden curriculum of implicit lessons
on appropriate behavior
Peers
In late adolescence (17-21), they become the dominant socialization agent

Media and technological environments and connections begin to extend peer networks and can be more impactful then even local peer groups
occupational socialization
the norms and values relative to work learned in a specific job
anticipatory socialization
the process by which individuals practice for a future social role by adopting the norms or behaviors associated with a position they have not yet achieved
Adolescence
Not seen as a distinct period of life until the early twentieth century

Vague shifting period (could we be in post-adolescence in our 20s)
Extended Post-Adolescence
Generation X to Generation Y

Is it extending further in years?
Adulthood
Defined by statuses that connote independence, both financially and in decision orientation
life-course perspective
perspective on socialization that looks at how age, time, and place shape social identities and experiences over a lifetime
Total Institutions
Confining social settings in which authoritative structure regulates all aspects of a person's life
Goffman's characteristics of total institutions
Care

Threat

Commitment

retreat
resocialization
the process by which individuals replace old norms and behaviors with new ones (this is often incomplete in rejoining society)
nature versus nurture debate
a disagreement about the relative importance of biology ("nature") and the social environment ("nurture") in influencing human behavior
biological determinism
position that contends biology, specifically our genetic makeup, almost completely shapes human behavior
social determinism
position that contends culture and the social environment almost completely shape human behavior
Reflexivity: Cooley's Looking Glass Self
Our interactions with others involve three steps that forge our sense of self:

We imagine our image in the eyes of others.

We imagine the others making some judgment about us.

We experience a feeling as a result of the imagined judgment.
looking glass self
the idea that our sense of self develops as a reflection of the way we think others see us
Spontaneity Versus Social Norms:
Mead's "I" and "Me"
"I" is the part of the self that is spontaneous, impulsive, creative, and unpredictable.

"Me" is the sense of self that has been learned from interactions with others.
Social Interaction: Developing a Self
Mead proposed that children advance through four stages of social development:

Pre-play stage

Play stage

Game stage

Generalized other
generalized other
the values and orientations of one's overall community rather than those of specific individuals
Kohlberg
preconventional, conventional, and postconventional

After the teen years, males develop consideration for others and then for the abstract sense morality
Gilligan
Girls develop with a care perspective and boys with a justice perspective

The justice perspective is favored as a more rational way of solving disputes
Lisa Bloom
Lisa Bloom and girls appearance norms
Regimes of power
Power and knowledge connected activate power from institutions and we internalize their gaze

A bottom up form of power

We socialize ourselves into what is good and normal

There is no "self"; it is a conduit of external forces embodied
Online Communication and Identity
Active participation in the construction of online identities, not constrained by biological reality

"First life" versus "second life"

Blurring of distinctions between private self and
public self

The "always-on culture" and the "rapid response" self