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149 terms

The Skeletal Sytstem

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epiphysis
site of spongy bone in the adult
diaphysis
site of compact bone in the adult
red marrow
site of hemetopoiesis in the adult
diaphysis
scientific name for bone shaft
yellow marrow
site of fat storage in the adult
epiphyseal plate
site of longitudinal growth in a child
elastic cartilage
supports the external ear
fibrocartilage
between the vertebrae
hylaline cartilage
forms the walls of the voice box (larynx)
elastic cartilage
the epiglottis
hyaline cartilage
articular cartilage
fibrocartilage
meniscus in a knee joint
hyaline cartilage
connects the ribs to the sternum
fibrocartilage
most effective at resisting compression
elastic cartilage
more springy and flexible
most abundant
hyaline cartilage
central haversian canal
longitudinal canal, carrying blood vessels and nerves
lacunae
spaces which house osteocytes
concentric lamellae
layers of calcified matrix
bone matrix
nonliving, structural part of bone
canaliculi
tiny canals, connecting lacunae
canaliculi
minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon
matrix
inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substance
articular cartilage
thin hyaline cartilage layer that covers epiphyses of bones in synovial joints
compact bone
Hard, dense bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone
endosteum
membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone
medullary cavity
central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone
periosteum
a fibrous, vascular membrane that covers the bone
condyle
rounded, convex projection
crest
narrow ridge of bone
epicondyle
raise area of condyle
fissure
narrow depression or opening
foramen
opening through a bone
fossa
shallow depression
head
structure supported on neck
meatus
canal-like structure
process
projection or prominence
ramus
armlike projection
sinus
air-filled cavity
spine
sharp, slender projection
trochanter
large, irregularly shaped projection
tubercle
small, rounded projection
tuberosity
large, rounded projection
osteon
a unit of bone that runs lengthwise; cylindrical structure
central haversian canal
opening in the center of osteon; carries blood vessels and nerves
perforating volkman's canal
canal perpendicular to the central canal; carries blood vessels and nerves
lacunae
gap/space; cavities containing bones cells
lamellae
rings around the central canal
lacunae
arranged in concentric rings
lamellae
sites of lacunae
canaliculi
branches for nutrients to each cell
canaliculi
tiny canals, radiate from the central canal to lacunae, transport
osteocytes
mature bone cells
osteoblasts
bone-forming cells
osteoclasts
bone-destroying cells
osteoclasts
break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium
projection
grow out from the bones surface
depressions/cavities
indentations/holes
sharpey's fibers
secure periosteum to underlying bone
periosteum
outside covering of the diaphysis
humerus
bone extending from the shoulder to the elbow
radius
bone of the lower arm (thumb side)
ulna
the inner and longer of the two bones of the forearm
femur
the longest and thickest bone of the human skeleton
tibia
the inner and thicker of the two bones of the human leg between the knee and ankle
fibula
the outer and thinner of the two bones of the human leg between the knee and ankle
carpals
bones of the wrist
metacarpals
bone of the hand between the wrist and each finger
tarsals
7 bones that make up the ankle
metatarsals
bones of the foot between ankle and toes
phalanges
bones of the fingers and toes
patella
a small flat triangular bone in front of the knee that protects the knee joint
long bone
Typically longer than wide
short bone
Generally cube-shape
irregular bone
Bones with complicated shapes
long bone
bone that contains mostly compact bone
long bone
bones that have a shaft with heads at both ends
short bone
bones that contain mostly spongy bone
sesamoid bones
type of short bone that forms within tendons
flat bone
bone that is Thin and flattened
flat bone
bone that is Usually curved
flat bone
bone with Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone
epiphysis
ends of bones, spongy bone
diaphysis
shaft, composed of compact bone
spongy bone
small needle-like pieces of bone, many open spaces
compact bone
homogenous, superficial bone, dense
frontal
forehead bone
zygomatic
cheekbone
mandible
lower jaw
nasal bone
bridge of nose
palatine bone
posterior part of hard palate
parietal bone
much of the lateral and superior cranium
sphenoid
single, irregular, bat-shaped bone, forming part of the cranial floor
lacrimal bone
tiny bones, bearing tear ducts
maxilla
anterior part of hard palate
ethmoid bone
superior and middle nasal conchae formed from its projections
temporal bone
site of mastoid process
mandible
site of mental foramen
temporal bone
site of styloid process
frontal sinus, sphenoid sinus, ethmoid sinus, maxillary sinus
four bones, containing paranasal sinuses
occipital bone
its condyles articulate with the atlas
occipital bone
foramen magnum contained here
temporal bone
middle ear found here
vomer
nasal septum
deltoid tuberosity
raised area on lateral surface of humerus to which deltoid muscle attaches
humerus
arm bone
scapula, clavicle
bones composing shoulder girdle
radius, ulna
bones composing forearm
acromion
point where scapula and clavicle connect
scapula
shoulder girdle bone that has no attachment to the axial skeleton
clavicle
shoulder girdle bone that articulates anteriorly with the sternum
glenoid cavity
socket in the scapula for the arm bone
clavicle
commonly called the collarbone
trochlea
distal medial process of the humerus; joins the ulna
ulna
medial bone of the forearm in anatomical position
sternum, scapula
bones that articulate with the clavicle
carpals
bones of the wrist
phalanges
bones of the fingers
metacarpals
heads of these bones form the knuckles
ilium, ischium, pubis
fuse to form the coxal bone
ischial tuberosity
receives the weight of the body when sitting
pubic symphysis
point where the coxal bones join anteriorly
iliac crest
upper margin of iliac bones
acetabulum
deep socket in the hip bone that receives the head of the thigh bone
sacroiliac joint
point where axial skeleton attaches to pelvic girdle
femur
longest bone is the body, articulates with the coxal bone
fibula
lateral bone of the leg
tibia
medial bone of the leg
femur, tibia, fibula, patella
bones forming the knee joint
tibial tuberosity
point where the patellar ligament attaches
patella
kneecap
tibia
shinbone
medial malleolus
distal process on medial tibial surface
lateral malleolus
process forming the outer ankle
calcaneus
heel bone
simple fracture
bone is broken cleanly; the ends do not penetrate the skin
close reduction
nonsurgical realignment of broken bone ends and splinting of bone
greenstick fracture
a break common in children; bone splinters, but break is incomplete
compression fracture
a fracture in which the bone is crushed; common in the vertebral column
compound fracture
a fracture in which the bone ends penetrate through the skin surface
open reduction
surgical realignment of broken bone ends
spiral fracture
a result of twisting forces
capitulum
rounded knob on the humerus that articulates with the radius
occipital
most posterior part of the cranium
scaphoid, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate, triquetral, pisiform, lunate
list the carpals starting with the one closest to the radius and moving clockwise
cervical curvature
C1-C7
thoracic curvature
T1-T12
lumbar curvature
L1-L5
atlas and axis
first two vertebra