Ivy Tech psych Exam 4 words
Terms in this set (100)
Mark is angry when the teacher blames him for misbehaving when it actually was the child behind him who had been acting up. As he leaves after school, he shoves another boy who gets in his way. Freud would say that Mark is unconsciously using the defense mechanism of:
a. displacement. c. projection.
b. repression. d. denial.
According to Freud, the psychosexual stage that occurs during infancy is called the:
a. latency stage. c. anal stage.
b. oral stage. d. phallic stage.
Raymond Cattell advanced the study of personality by:
a. developing case-study analysis. c. devising the Myers-Briggs inventory.
b. using projective tests in his research. d. using factor analysis.
Innate physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways that are present in infancy are
a. personalities. c. temperaments.
b. aptitudes. d. traits.
Which of the following theories of personality would be most likely to emphasize the freedom of individuals
to choose to act in particular ways?
a. humanist c. psychodynamic
b. behaviorist d. collectivist
For Carl Rogers, our personalities reflect:
a. a few central traits and a greater number of secondary traits.
b. the ways we cope with the struggle to find meaning in existence.
c. whether or not a person received unconditional positive regard throughout childhood.
d. a gradual progression toward self-actualization.
Which of the following is NOT a factor that might cause personality differences in non-twin siblings?
a. differing genes c. their parents' style of child rearing
b. chance unpredictable events d. differing peer groups
According to Freud, the psychosexual stage that occurs during the grade school years until puberty is called
a. latency stage. c. anal stage.
b. oral stage. d. phallic stage.
a major trait theorist who recognized that not all traits have equal weight and
significance in people's lives.
a. Abraham Maslow c. Gordon Allport
b. John B. Watson d. Karen Horney
Which of the following is NOT one of the Big Five personality traits?
a. agreeableness c. neuroticism
b. openness to experience d. psychopathy
an estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait among individuals
within a group that is attributable to genetic differences.
a. Reciprocal determinism c. Factor analysis
b. Heritability d. Congruence
_______________ is defined as a two-way interaction between aspects of the environment and aspects of the
individual in the shaping of personality traits.
a. Social-cognitive interaction c. Parallel interaction
b. Nature-nurture theory d. Reciprocal determinism
David is struggling with the concept of free will and the way in which it confers on us responsibility for our
actions. This is an emphasis in the personality theory of:
a. Carl Rogers. c. Melanie Klein.
b. Abraham Maslow. d. Rollo May.
The oldest theory of personality, the _______________ , was very influential and still appeals to some psychologists today.
a. humanist theory b. genetic theory
c. psychoanalytic theory d. cognitive theory
. After twelve years of attending the same schools, Holly and Amy chose to attend colleges in different states. Holly remembered Amy as a shy but friendly girl who rarely took risks, and so Holly was surprised when her friend sent an e-mail describing the thrill of sky-diving. Holly's surprise occurred because Amy's behaviors don't match the _______________ that Holly had observed in high school.
a. internal locus of control b. personality traits
c. external locus of control d. defense mechanisms
The personality theory that is most embedded in popular culture is:
a. social-cognitive learning theory. b. psychodynamic theory.
c. humanist theory. d. trait theory.
Which component of personality represents morality and parental authority?
a. the id b. the ego
c. the libido d. the superego
Which component of personality is a "referee" between the needs of instinct and the demands of society?
a. the id b. the ego
c. the libido d. the superego
occurs when people direct their emotions toward objects, animals, or people that are not
the real object of their emotion.
a. Projection b. Sublimation
c. Displacement d. Denial
What are the stages of psychosexual development in order beginning from birth?
a. anal, oral, latency, phallic, genital
b. oral, anal, latency, genital, phallic
c. oral, anal, genital, latency, phallic
d. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Critics argue that psychodynamic theories are guilty of three scientific failings. Which of the following is NOT one of the criticisms?
a. The psychodynamic theories work backward, basing personality development on retrospective
b. The psychodynamic theories violate the principle of falsifiability.
c. The psychodynamic theories state that aspects of personality lie outside our awareness.
d.. The psychodynamic theories draw universal principles from the experiences of a few atypical patients
describes the extent to which people are outgoing or shy.
a. Agreeableness vs. antagonism
b. Extroversion vs. introversion
c. Neuroticism vs. emotional stability
d. Openness to experience vs. resistance to new experience
Research on the Big Five and the aging process supports all of the following EXCEPT:
a. people begin to become less antagonistic and more agreeable around age 30.
b. the Big Five are remarkably stable over a lifetime, especially after a person reaches the age of 30.
c. from 16 to 21 years of age, people are the most neurotic and least conscientious.
d. in later adulthood, individuals become more open to new experiences.
Physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways are present in infancy. These dispositions, called _______________, are assumed to be innate.
a. personalities b. aptitudes
c. temperaments d. traits
Your textbook authors point out that in order to discuss the influence of the environment on personality, we must answer the question, "What is the environment?" The three crucial aspects of the environment, according to our authors, are:
a. community standards, the media, and authority figures.
b. classmates, close friends, and parents.
c. mother, father, and extended family interactions.
d. parents, peers, and particular situations.
is defined as a two-way interaction between aspects of the environment and aspects of
the individual in the shaping of personality traits.
a. Social-cognitive interaction b. Nature-nurture theory
c. Reciprocal interaction d. Reciprocal determinism
Developmental psychologists have attempted to identify the effects of many specific child-rearing practices on children's personality traits. The problem with this line of research is that:
a. parents who use physical punishment won't be honest with the researchers.
b. psychologists cannot agree on whether to use cross-sectional or longitudinal approaches.
c. it is difficult to recruit parents to serve as participants in this research.
d. parents are inconsistent from day to day and over the years.
When child-rearing methods are studied, researchers have found that:
a. children have lasting emotional damage if their parents use severe childrearing methods.
b. loving parents who are consistent in their child-rearing seldom have troubled children.
c. parents are more lenient with easygoing children and more punitive with difficult ones.
d. parents adopt a preferred method of childrearing and seldom vary it from child to child.
Dee Dee's parents place a high value on academic achievement, but her peers do not. In this situation:
a. Dee Dee will vacillate between the desire to study and the desire to be popular.
b. Dee Dee's response will be dictated by her genetic predispositions and intelligence.
c. the values of Dee Dee's parents are likely to be the strongest influence.
d. Dee Dee will be more strongly influenced by her peers.
The personality theorist who described the importance of having peak experiences was:
a. Abraham Maslow. b. Carol Rogers.
c. Rollo May. d. . Karen Horney
. Mental disorder is defined as:
a. the inability to distinguish right from wrong.
b. behavior that violates cultural standards.
c. behavior or emotional states that cause an individual distress, are self-destructive, endanger others, or
impair a person's ability to function.
d. behavior that deviates strongly from the norm and prevents a person from functioning normally.
Which of the following is NOT one of the five axes in the DSM?
a. the primary clinical problem c. family history of primary problem
b. contributing medical conditions d. global assessment of functioning
lack reliability and validity.
a. Objective tests c. Personality inventories
b. Projective tests d. Diagnoses based on the DSM
_______________ refers to a fear of being trapped in a crowded, public place.
a. Claustrophobia c. Mysophobia
b. Social phobia d. Agoraphobia
A(n) _______________ is a persistent, unwanted thought.
a. obsession c. delusion
b. compulsion d. hallucination
Which of the following is NOT a symptom of mania?
a. feelings of power c. impulsive behavior
b. extreme euphoria d. excess rumination
In 1960, only eight cases of dissociative identity disorder had been reported, but by 1995 _______________
cases had been reported in North America alone.
a. 1,000 c. 30,000
b. 15,000 d. 40,000
. Alcoholism would be less likely to occur:
a. if it was used as a rite of passage into adulthood.
b. if the adults drank moderately at family gatherings.
c. if drinking occurred outside of homes, not in them
d. if national abstinence was enforced by law once again.
The primary purpose of the DSM is to:
a. help psychologists assess normal, as well as abnormal, behavior.
b. keep the number of diagnostic categories of mental disorders to a minimum.
c. provide descriptive criteria for diagnosing mental disorders.
d. describe the causes of common psychological disorders.
Which of the following is NOT a problem with the DSM?
a. the danger of overdiagnosis
b. the power of diagnostic labels
c. the illusion of objectivity and universality
d. the inclusion of culture-bound syndromes
the fear of dirt and germs, is a common phobia.
a. Mysophobia c. Triskaidekaphobia
b. Brontophobia d. Agoraphobia
One of the symptoms of _______________ is a lack of remorse, empathy, anxiety, and other social emotions.
a. schizophrenia c. antisocial personality disorder
b. borderline personality disorder d. psychopathy
. The two dominant approaches to understanding addiction and drug abuse are:
a. the biological model and the learning model.
b. the cultural model and the psychodynamic model.
c. the humanist model and the biological model.
d. the learning model and the psychodynamic model.
In defining a mental disorder, it is common to consider all of the following EXCEPT:
a. whether a person's behavior violates cultural standards.
b. whether a person is legally insane.
c. whether a person's behavior causes him or her to feel distressed.
d. whether a person's behavior is self-destructive or harmful to others.
Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement regarding the DSM?
a. The first edition of the DSM, published in 1952, listed about 100 disorders.
b. The DSM-IV revised edition published in 2000 contains nearly 400 disorders.
c. The primary aim of the DSM is to explain the causes of various psychological disorders.
d. The DSM encourages clinicians to evaluate clients according to five different axes.
Projective tests are based on:
a. behavioral assumptions. b. psychodynamic assumptions.
c. humanist assumptions. d. social-cognitive learning assumptions.
The chief characteristic of generalized anxiety disorder is:
a. continuous, uncontrollable anxiety or worry.
b. short-lived, but intense, feelings of spontaneous anxiety.
c. excessive fear of a particular situation.
d. repeated thoughts used to ward off anxious feelings.
In many of the people who continue to suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder, the _______________ is significantly smaller than in those people who recover from the trauma.
a. hypothalamus b. thalamus
c. amygdala d. hippocampus
. Which of the following is an INCORRECT match?
a. Agoraphobia—fear of fear, fear of being trapped in public
b. Social phobia—fear of situations in which they will be observed by others
c. Compulsion—recurrent, persistent, unwished-for images and thoughts
d. Generalized anxiety disorder—continuing sense of doom and worry
Biological research concerning the development of mood disorders suggests that:
a. acetylcholine and dopamine may be key neurotransmitters in depression.
b. a long form of the gene 5-HTT may predispose a person to depression.
c. depressed people have high levels of cortisol, which can affect the hippocampus and amygdala.
d. part of the problem of depression is the underproduction of cortisol.
. According to the textbook's discussion of dissociative disorders:
a. the splitting of consciousness in this way is more common among individuals from collectivist cultures than individuals from individualist cultures.
b. between 1789 (a young German woman was the earliest reported case) and 1957 (the film The Three
Faces of Eve was released), there were more than 40,000 cases reported worldwide.
c. patients' physiological responses show unique patterns for each personality, which provides empirical support for "mental splitting."
d. each identity appears to have its own memories, preferences, personality traits, and medical problems.
Vidor dreams that he is on a beach. The tide is coming in and his body is in pieces. He is unable to gather the dismembered body together to run away. It is most likely that Vidor's diagnosis is:
a. dissociative identity disorder. b. generalized anxiety disorder.
c. schizophrenia. d. psychopathy.
Virtually all antipsychotic drugs work by __________.
a. increasing the amount of serotonin in the brain
b. blocking dopamine receptors in the brain
c. increasing the amount of acetylcholine in the brain
d. inhibiting the function of the hypothalamus
. Lithium is a naturally occurring __________.
a. drug b. enzyme
c. salt d. plant
110. Thorazine and Stelazine are used to calm and relieve:
a. delusions of schizophrenia. b. generalized anxiety.
c. the manic phase of bipolar disorder. d. the symptoms of hypochondriasis.
Physicians who are trained to treat psychological disorders are called:
a. clinicians. b. counselors.
c. psychiatrists. d. psychiatric psychologists.
The _______ approach to treatment is NOT an example of biological therapy for mental disorders.
a. electroshock b. implosion
c. psychosurgery d. chemotherapy
. Electroshock treatment is mainly effective in treating _______.
a. depression b. schizophrenia
c. anxiety disorders d. all of the above
Dr. Lee believes that all psychological disorders can be treated in much the same way as can physical disorders. He was most likely trained under the _______ model.
a. psychoanalytic b. rational emotive
c. Freudian d. medical
The initial treatment of choice for schizophrenia is probably _______.
a. psychotherapy b. chemotherapy
c. prefrontal lobotomy d. electroconvulsive therapy
Electroconvulsive therapy is used to alleviate _______.
a. anxiety b. schizophrenia
c. somatoform disorders d. severe depression
Tardive dyskinesia is a side effect of _______.
a. barbiturate use b. psychosurgery
c. ECT d. antipsychotic drugs
. A therapist is interested in interpreting dreams and in having clients relate their thoughts without modifying them. This therapist is most likely to be a
a. client-centered therapist. b. psychoanalyst.
c. cognitive therapist. d. behavior therapist.
Client-centered therapy was founded by __________.
a. Rogers b. Wolpe
c. Adler d. Jung
Psychoanalysis was a therapy technique designed by __________.
a. Fritz Perls b. Sigmund Freud
c. Carl Rogers d. Alfred Adler
The term "unconditional positive regard" is associated with _______.
a. Fritz Perls b. Sigmund Freud
c. Carl Rogers d. B. F. Skinner
Insight therapies include all but which one of the following?
a. psychoanalysis b. humanistic therapy
c. behavior modification d. Gestalt therapies
Psychoanalytic theory was developed by:
a. Freud. b. Perls.
c. Erikson. d. Rogers.
Of the following, which type of therapist would be more interested in a client's past rather than the current situation?
a. psychoanalytic b. rational-emotive
c. behavioral d. Gestalt
Psychoanalysis is considered LEAST useful in treating _______.
a. anxiety disorders b. phobia
c. depression d. schizophrenia
An essential element of client-centered therapy is _______.
a. a nonthreatening atmosphere b. free-association
c. detailed exploration of the client's childhood d. properly timed and worded interpretations
What do behavior therapists see as the cause of maladaptive behaviors?
a. learning b. distortions in thinking
c. unconscious conflicts d. discrepancy between the real self and ideal self
Psychotherapies that emphasize changing clients' perceptions of their life situation as a way of modifying their behavior are called __________.
a. behavior therapy b. client-centered therapy
c. cognitive therapy d. Gestalt therapy
A technique which assumes it is impossible to be relaxed and anxious at the same time is _______.
a. systematic desensitization b. overgeneralization
c. conditioning d. free association
Cognitive behavior therapy is particularly effective in the treatment of _______.
a. anxiety disorders b. schizophrenia
c. somatoform disorders d. depression
Antidepressant drugs can cause all of the following side effects EXCEPT:
a. nausea. c. constipation.
b. headaches. d. low blood pressure.
Which of the following is NOT an aspect of drug therapy?
a. the placebo effect c. low relapse and dropout rates
b. dosage problems d. long-term risks
The primary goal of _______________ is to find meaning in life.
a. cognitive therapy c. existential therapy
b. humanist therapy d. behavior therapy
A primary goal of _______________ is to resolve conflict and break out of destructive habits.
a. behavior therapy c. couples therapy
b. rational-emotive therapy d. psychodynamic therapy
Which of the following is NOT a problem with the use of antipsychotic drugs?
a. People may quit taking their medication because of unpleasant side effects.
b. They do not reduce all of the symptoms of schizophrenia.
c. They can cause severe hypertension.
d. A common side effect is uncontrollable tremors
This class of drugs is primarily used to manage heart irregularities and hypertension and is sometimes prescribed to relieve acute anxiety.
a. Lithium Carbonate b. Beta blockers
c. MAOI's d. Prozac
Which of the following is NOT a behavioral therapy?
a. flooding c. exposure
b. skills training d. family-systems perspective
Which of the following developed rational-emotive behavior therapy?
a. B. F. Skinner c. Albert Ellis
b. Aaron Beck d. Irvin Yalom
The primary method in _______________ involves providing a nonjudgmental setting in which to discuss
issues while providing the client with unconditional positive regard.
a. existential therapy c. rational-emotive behavior therapy
b. client-centered therapy d. modern psychodynamic therapies
Which of the following is NOT a factor that contributes to the scientist-practitioner gap?
a. the rise of professional schools c. a lack of empirical assessment of therapy
b. proliferation of new therapies d. unequal salaries of academic and applied psychologists
What is the most important factor contributing to success in therapy?
a. the therapeutic alliance c. an ethnic match between therapist and client
b. a motivated client d. a match between type of therapy and type of problem
An issue of concern to those treating individuals with mental disorders is whether the therapists need to "fix" the brain or the mind. At this time, the explanations and treatments that are in the ascendance are:
a. humanist explanations and treatments.
b. biological explanations and treatments.
c. behavioral explanations and treatments.
d. psychodynamic explanations and treatments.
_______________, such as Valium and Xanax, increase the activity of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
a. Antipsychotic drugs b. Tranquilizers
c. Lithium carbonate d. Antidepressants
An antidepressant would NOT be prescribed for:
a. anxiety. b. phobias.
c. obsessive-compulsive disorder. d. bipolar disorder.
People suffering from bipolar disorder often are helped by taking _______________, which may produce its effects by protecting brain cells from being overstimulated by another neurotransmitter, glutamate.
a. an antipsychotic drug b. a tranquilizer
c. lithium carbonate d. an antidepressant
Murray is a bright student but he procrastinates. He puts off writing term papers and gets incompletes which eventually become F's. After exploring his early memories, Murray comes to the insight that he procrastinates as a way of expressing anger toward his parents. The treatment method used to help Murray deal with his problem is:
a. psychodynamic therapy. b. behavior therapy.
c. cognitive therapy. d. humanist therapy.
A therapist considers her method to be a form of "depth" therapy because her goal is to delve into the deep unconscious processes of her patients. Which type of therapist would she represent?
a. psychodynamic b. behavioral
c. cognitive d. existential
_______________ occurs when a client responds to her therapist with unconscious emotions or reactions, such as conflicts about her parents.
a. Flooding b. Exposure treatment
c. Transference d. Free association
Laura has had many different jobs, but she always does something to get herself fired. After about fifteen therapy sessions, during which she explores her earliest memories, she has an insight. She comes to believe sabotaging her jobs is her way of expressing anger toward her father, who had always put his job before his family. What method of therapy is Laura most likely engaged in?
a. psychodynamic therapy b. behavior therapy
c. cognitive therapy d. humanist therapy
Psychologists who practice behavioral therapy focus on the client's
a. unconscious anxieties. b. relationships with parents.
c. methods of coping with inescapable realities of life.
d. current behavior and attitudes.
Murray is a bright student, but he procrastinates. He puts off writing term papers and gets incompletes which eventually become F's. Murray's therapist has Murray write down his thoughts about work, read the thoughts as if someone else had said them, and then write a rational response to each one. The treatment method used to help Murray deal with his problem is:
a. psychodynamic therapy. b. behavior therapy.
c. cognitive therapy. d. humanist therapy.
In client-centered therapy, the therapist's role is to:
a. listen to the client's needs in an accepting, nonjudgmental way and offer unconditional positive regard.
b. help clients keep records of when their unwanted habits occur and what positive consequences keep
these habits continuing.
c. help the client reach understanding and insight regarding the reason for his or her unhappiness and
d. listen attentively as clients cope with the inescapable realities of life and death, and struggle to live a
A family therapist would agree that:
a. family members need to be taught to provide one another with unconditional positive regard.
b. efforts to isolate and treat one member of a family, without the other family members, are doomed.
c. behavioral contracts and skills training are necessary tools to heal the wounded member of a family.
d. the therapeutic window that is appropriate for each family member must be carefully determined.
All successful therapies, regardless of approach, share what key element?
a. They explicitly focus on helping change the client's life stories through the lessening of the client's symptoms.
b. They are able to replace a client's self-defeating, pessimistic life story with one that is more hopeful or
c. The therapists are scientific psychologists who rely on empirical research to determine the most
effective technique for each client.
d. The therapists remain neutral and detached so that the clients can project their own issues into the therapy session.
Georgina's treatment for bulimia and binge eating has been highly successful. It is most likely that her treatment involved a combination of:
a. cognitive therapy and behavior therapy.
b. psychodynamic therapy and humanist therapy.
c. family intervention therapy and behavioral skills training.
d. systematic desensitization and exposure techniques.
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