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This flashcard set reviews the structures of the skin as seen on a lab model. I hope you find it helpful in your study of the integumentary system. All lab model photographs by Rob Swatski (2010). Visit my iTunes U site for Anatomy podcasts and PDF files of all of my anatomy photo visual guides!


the superficial, thinner layer of skin, composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium


a layer of dense irregular connective tissue lying deep to the epidermis

subcutaneous layer

a continuous sheet of areolar connective tissue and adipose tissue between the dermis of the skin and the deep fascia of the muscles

stratum basale

the deepest layer of the epidermis consisting of stem cells capable of undergoing cell division to form new cells

stratum spinosum

a layer of the epidermis that provides strength and flexibility to the skin

stratum granulosum

a layer of the epidermis that marks the transition between the deeper, metabolically active strata and the dead cells of the more superficial strata

stratum lucidum

a layer of the epidermis found only in the thick skin of the fingers, palms, and soles

stratum corneum

the most superficial layer of the epidermis consisting of dead cells

hair follicle

a structure composed of epithelium that surrounds the root of a hair


the superficial portion of the hair


the portion of a hair that penetrates into the dermis and sometimes the subcutaneous layer

external root sheath

a downward continuation of the epidermis that surrounds the root of the hair

internal root sheath

a covering of epithelium produced by the matrix that surrounds the root of the hair


the base of a hair follicle and its surrounding dermal root sheath, containing the papilla of the hair and matrix

papilla of the hair

a nipple-shaped indentation which contains areolar connective tissue and many blood vessels that nourish the growing hair follicle

sebaceous gland

an exocrine gland in the dermis associated with a hair follicle that secretes oil

arrector pili

a smooth muscle attached to hair follicles that causes "goose bumps" to appear on the skin when contracted

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