39 terms

Theories and Models- Social Work ASWB Masters Exam Guide (Apgar 2015)

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Systems Theory
A system is comprised of parts that work together. When one thing changes, the whole system is affected.
Closed system
uses up its energy and dies
Open system
a system with cross-boundary exchange
Equifinality
arriving at the same end from different beginnings
Input
obtaining resources from the environment
Output
a product of the system that exports to the environement
Family Theories
-Provides a base for dealing with family-related problems by determining the extent to which such problems related to family issues
-Look at the family as a whole
-All parts of the family are interrelated
Strategic Family Therapy
-The social worker initiates what happens by designing a specific approach for each persons presenting problems and directly influences them
Concepts and Techniques of Strategic Family Therapy
-pretend technique: encourage family members to pretend and encourage voluntary control of behavior
-relabeling: changing the label attached to a person or problem from negative to positive so the situation can be perceived differently
-first order changes: superficial behavioral changes that do not change structure of the system
-second order changes: changes to systematic interaction patter so system functions more effectively
Structural Family Therapy
-Stresses the importance of family organization for the functioning of the group and well-being of its members.
-Family structure is defined by set of functional demands organizing family interactions
- The social worker engages family to help restructure it.
Bowenian Family Therapy
-Goal is aimed at improving intergenerational transmission process
-concepts include multigenerational transmission, differentiation, emotional fusion, emotional triangle, nuclear family, and societal regression
differentiation
Concept stemming from Bowenian Family Therapy that poses the more differentiated a family is, the more a client can be an individual while in emotional contact with the family. Allows client to think about situation without associated pressures.
emotional fusion
Stems from Bowenian Family Therapy. It is the tendency for families to share emotional responses
multigenerational transmission
Stems from Bowenian Family Therapy. Stresses the connection of current generations to past generations
emotional triangle
Stems from Bowenian Family Therapy. States that a relationship can be stable until anxiety is introduced; then a third party is recruited to stabilize
Nuclear family
Stems from Bowenian Family Therapy. The most basic unit in society. Clients pick mates that tend to have the same level of differentiation
Societal Regression
Stems from Bowenian Family Therapy. It is manifested by problems such as depletion of natural resources
Group Work
a method of social work that helps individuals to enhance their social functioning through purposeful group experiences
-individuals in groups help each other to make changes in their lives
groupthink
when a group makes faulty decisions because of group pressures
psychodynamic theories
explain the origin of the personality and emphasize unconscious motives and desires, as well as importance of childhood experiences
Psychoanalytic Theory
-Developed by Feud, a client is the product of their past and treatment involves dealing with REPRESSED materials in the unconscious
-personality derived from conflicting psych forces that operate in conscious, preconscious, and unconscious
-personality has 3 components: id(impulsive,pleasure) , ego (mediator), superego(morals)
Psychosexual Stages of Development
children gain sexual gratification from a particular part of their bodies. a child can become fixated (fixation) if gratified too much or not enough
-stages include oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Individual Psychology
-Adler believed that the main motivation for human behavior are not sexual or aggressive urges, but striving for PERFECTION
-related terms: compensation and inferiority
-therapy aims to address feelings of inferiority
self psychology
-the self is the central organizing and motivating force in the personality
-as a result of receiving empathetic respnses from early caretakers (self-objects), a childs needs are met and they develop strong sense of selfhood
-objective is to help a client develop a greater sense of selfhood
ego psychology
focuses on rational, conscious processes of the ego; assessment of clients focused on the here and now
-goal is to maintain and enhance the ego's control of stress
Stages of Psychosocial Development
-Erik Erikson believed personality developed in predetermined order and focused on how children socialize
-Stages include trust vs mistrust, autonomy vs shame and doubt, initiative vs guilt, industry vs inferiority, identity vs role confusion, intimacy vs isolation, generativity vs stagnation, ego integrity vs despair
Object Relations Theory
-Margaret Mahler, lifelong relationship skills are strongly rooted in early attachments with parents
-objects are people or physical items that symbolically represent people (object relations= relationships to those people/items)
Behavioral Theories
-personality is the result of interaction between the individual and their environment
-behaviors determine feelings so changing behaviors will eliminate undesired feelings
Respondent or Classical Conditioning
Pavlov (Dogs), learning occurs when pairing previously neutral (conditioned) stimulus with unconditioned (involuntary) stimulus so that conditioned stimulus eventually elicits the response normally elicited by the unconditioned stimulus
Operant Conditioning
-B.F Skinner, antecedent stimuli precede behaviors which are followed by consequences
-terms to know: negative/positive reinforcement, aversion therapy, extinction, modeling
Cognitive (Development) Theory
-Piaget, children acquire knowledge through interaction with the environment and others
-Stages include sensorimoter, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations
Moral (Development) Theory
Kohlberg, believed that the basis for ethical behavior has 6 stages
-preconventional (1&2), Conventional (3&4), and postconventional (5&6)
Person-in-Environment Perspective
Highlights the importance of understanding client in the context of the environment they live in. It also examines social role functioning , mental health, and physical health (the whole person).
Double bind
a communication theory that consists of offering two contradictory messages and prohibitin recipient from noticing the contradiction
Conversion
A defense mechanism that occurs when a repressed urge is expressed disguised as a disturbance in bodily function (pain, deafness, blindness, etc.)
Devaluation
A defense mechanism frequently used by persons with BPD in which a person attributes exaggerated negative qualities to self or another
Effects of discrimination
On micro level, it can be linked to anxiety and depression and behavioral problems. Effects may also include diabetes, high blood pressure, and diabetes. On macro level, it can create a climate of despondence, apprehension, and fear.
Strengths perspective (humanistic approach)
The assumption that clients have the capacity to grow, change, and adapt. They are also resilient and have the knowledge to solve their own problems.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
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