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Psychology Chapters 11-15 Study Guide (Part Two)
Terms in this set (50)
Generalized anxiety disorder
a disorder characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms; restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance.
disorders characterized by marked, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations.
a disorder that involves an irrational fear of a particular object or situation that markedly interferes with an indiviedual's ability to function.
a disorder that involves an irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or embarrassed.
a disorder characterized by the sudden occurrence of multiple psychological symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror.
a disorder in which repetitive, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and ritualistic behaviors (compulsions) designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individual's functioning.
a disorder characterized by a severely depressed mood that lasts 2 weeks or more and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness and lack of pleasure, lethargy, and sleep and appetite disturbances. On average, lasts about 12 weeks.
a moderately depressed mood that lasts for at least two years and is punctuated by periods of major depression.
a disorder that involves the same symptoms as in depression only less severe, but the symptoms last longer, persisting for at least two years.
Seasonal affective disorder
depressions that involves recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern.
an unstable emotional condition characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (mania) and low mood (depression).
Sex differences regarding mood disorders
women are diagnosed with depression at a rate twice as large as the rate of men. Hormone differences and socioeconomic differences are possible explanations for this. It is also possible that women are more likely to face their depression and seek treatment leading to a higher rate of diagnosis.
Neurotransmitters involved in mood disorders
a reduction in the normal levels of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin can lead to depression. However, some studies have shown that increased levels in norepinephrine can also lead to depression.
Aaron Beck's helplessness theory
the idea that individuals who are prone to depression automatically attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal(i.e., their own fault), stable(i.e, unlikely to change), and global(i.e., widespread).
men are more likely to commit suicide in the U.S. than women at all ages, men's likelihood of suicide grows in early adulthood, and white men remain most suicide prone throughout life with a spike in the later years.
a condition in which normal cognitive processes are severely disjointed and fragmented, creating significant disruptions in memory, awareness, or personality, that can vary in length from a matter of minutes to many years.
• Dissociative identity disorder
the presence within an individual of two or more distinct identities that at different times take control of the individual's behavior.
the sudden loss of memory for significant personal information.
the sudden loss of memory for one's personal history, accompanied by an abrupt departure from home and the assumption of a new identity.
the idea that schizophrenia involves an excess of dopamine activity.
May cause of schizophrenia
Enlarged ventricles in the brain may also be a cause of schizophrenia.
(Odd/Eccentric cluster) Schizotypal
peculiar or eccentric manners of speaking or dressing, strange beliefs
(Odd/Eccentric cluster) Schizoid
extreme introversion and withdrawal from relationships.
(Dramatic/erratic cluster) Antisocial
impoverished moral sense or "conscience", history of deception/crime.
(Dramatic/erratic cluster) Borderline
unstable moods and intense, stormy personal relationships.
(Dramatic/erratic cluster) Histrionic
constant attention seeking.
(Dramatic/erratic cluster) Narcissistic
inflated sense of self-importance.
(Anxious/inhibited cluster) Avoidant
socially anxious and uncomfortable unless they are confident of being liked.
(Anxious/inhibited cluster) Dependent
submissive, dependent, requires excessive approval.
conscientious, orderly, perfectionist.
Antisocial personality disorder
a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. Neuroimaging has shown that when people with APD are shown negative emotional words such as hate or corpse, they show less activity in the amygdala and hippocampus than a normal person.
an interaction between a therapist and someone suffering from a psychological problem, with the goal of providing support or relief from the problem.
a method in which the mental disorder is treated with drugs or surgery. Rely on the biology and chemistry of the brain.
A general approach to treatment that explores childhood events and encourages individuals to develop insight into their psychological problems.
Psychodynamic therapies (Continued)
Believe that the path to overcoming psychological problems is to develop insight into the unconscious memories, impulses, wishes, and conflicts that are assumed to underlie these problems.
(Psychodynamic therapies) Resistance
a reluctance to cooperate with treatment for fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious material.
(Psychodynamic therapies) Transference
An event that occurs in psychoanalysis when the analyst begins to assume a major significance in the client's life and the clients reacts to the analyst based on unconscious childhood fantasies.
a form of behavior therapy in which clients are given "tokens" for desired behaviors, which they can later trade for rewards.
an approach to treatment that involves confronting an emotion-arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional response.
a procedure in which the client relaxes all of the muscles of his or her body while imagining being in increasingly frightening situations.
A form of psychotherapy that involves helping a client identify and connect any distorted thinking about self, others, or the world.
a therapeutic approach that teaches clients to question the automatic beliefs, assumptions, and predictions that often lead to negative emotions and to replace negative thinking with more realistic and positive beliefs.
a form of cognitive therapy that teaches an individual to be fully present in each moment; to be aware of his or her feelings, thoughts, and sensations; and to detect symptoms before they become a problem.
an approach to therapy that assumes all individuals have a tendency toward growth and that this growth can be facilitated by acceptance and genuine reactions from the therapist.
an existentialist approach to treatment with the goal of helping the client become aware of his or her thoughts, behaviors, experiences, and feelings and to "own" or take responsibility for them.
The study of drug effects on psychological states and symptoms
medications that are used to treat schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Act on neurotransmitters by blocking dopamine receptors.
Commonly used antidepressants
MAOIs, Tricylic antidepressants, SSRIs, SNRI
Blocks dopamine receptors
Recommended textbook explanations
Arlene Lacombe, Kathryn Dumper, Rose Spielman, William Jenkins
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
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