APUSH 9-18

"The Reign of King 'Mob'"
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Terms in this set (256)
Trail of TearsA forced journey for the Civilized Tribes to reservations deeper in the West."soft money" v. "hard money"advocates of soft money consisted mostly of state bankers and their allies and objected to the Banks because it restrained state banks from issuing notes freely (economic growth, speculation); advocates of hard money believed the coin was the only safe currency (because it actually had value) and were against all banks that issued bank notes (older ideas of public virtue)Bank War*Jackson's refusal to renew the charter of the Bank of the United States (by vetoing the recharter bill) because he supported hard money; weakened the Bank by removing the government's deposits from it, then hired a 3rd secretary (Taney--whom actually supported him) to take these deposits and put them in state banks; blamed the subsequent recession on Biddle (banker) who was losing support to keep Bank alive --> recharter of the Bank died & victory for JacksonNicholas Biddle- president of the Bank of the United States; known for bribes and corruptionCharles River Bridge v. Warren BridgeDispute over the toll bridge of Charles River and the free bridge of Warren. The court ruled in favor of Warren. Reversed Dartmouth College v. Woodward; property rights can be overridden by public needWhigs*anti-jacksonThe American System*Internal improvement & economic development (Clay) [originally didn't like it/approve until after Civil War]Martin Van Buren...Penny PressNewspapers that, because of technological innovations in printing, were able to drop their price to one cent, therefore making papers affordable to working and middle classes and enabled newspapers to become a genuine mass medium"log cabin" campaignname given to William Henry Harrison's campaign for the presidency in 1840, from the Whigs use of a log cabin as their symbolWilliam Henry Harrison...Webster-Ashburton Treaty1842 between the US and the Brits, settled boundry disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada, talked about slavery and excredition.Treaty of Wang HyaExtended the US trade in China to equal that of GB. China agreed to open Chinese ports for the US.Nativism*a policy of favoring native inhabitants as opposed to immigrants, Many disliked the idea of new arrivals. They created secret societies.Know-Nothing PartyA party which pushed for political action against these newcomers. They displayed the feelings of America regarding newcomers that were different and therefore, the double standard of the country.Erie Canal*could not receive federal funding because south hated infrastructure so NY funded itselfBaltimore and Ohio RailroadThe first company to begin actual road operations, which opened a thirteen mile stretch of track in 1830.Samuel F.B. MorseA New England artist who created the telegraph by improving on a device developed by Joseph Henry.Corporationsbusinesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stockLimited Liability*A form of business ownership in which the owners are liable only up to the amount of their individual investments.Lowell System*enlisted young women (farmers daughters--late teens/early twenties) to work in mills; these women would work for several years, save their money, and return home to marry & raise children; well-fed, housed well, generous wages by time standards, had magazine; only alternative to returning to farms that could no longer support themIrish Immigration-Prolonged depression, economic collapse and potato rot in 184DeskillingReduction in the skill needed to do a job, due to technologyCommonwealth v. Hunt*(1842) a landmark ruling of the MA Supreme Court establishing the legality of labor unions and the legality of union workers striking if an employer hired non-union workers.Craft UnionsSkilled labor organizations, such as those of carpenters and printers, that were most successful in conducting strikes and raising wagesCentral ParkDesigned by Frederick Law Olmsted in 1858, New York's Central Park was the first example of a movement to create urban parks.Cult of Domesticityidealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbandsSeparate Spheres**Middle-class ideal where home life was strictly separated from the workplace and womens roles were separate from mens, with women running the household and men earning money outside it.Mary Lyon(AJ) in 1837 founded the first college for women, Mount Holyoke Female SeminaryCyrus McCormick's Reapera invention made by cyrus McCormick of Virginia, took the place of sickle, cradle and hand labor. Pulled by a team of horses, it had a row of horizontal knives on one side for cutting wheat; the wheels drove a paddle that bent the stalks over the knives which then fell onto a moving belt that carried it into the back of the vehicle.King Cotton*Expression used by Southern authors and orators before Civil War to indicate economic dominance of Southern cotton industry, and that North needed South's cotton. Coined by James HammondDe Bow's Commercial ReviewMagazine written by James D.B. De Bow which argued for Southern commercial expansion and economic independence from the North. Ironically, it was full of Northern industrial advertisements and had less circulation than the Northern "Harper's Weekly".Planter Aristocracy*the wealthy plantation owners with many slaves stood at the head of society determining the political, economical, and social aspects of society; they were the face of the south"hill people"- Some non slave owning whites opposed the planter elit"crackers"slang for poor whites that were against slavery in the south. Given the name due to the fact that they were so poor, they had to crack they're own cornmeal in order to make bread. Also called lowland whites or poor whites (basically the white trash of the 19th century)Slave codes*In 1661 a set of "codes" was made. It denied slaves basic fundamental rights, and gave their owners permission to treat them as they saw fit.Varieties of slavery- Different enforcement in Slave Codes (some flexible & more rights, but some lived in prison-like conditionsSambo image*powerful stereotype of slaves in white society: the shuffling, grinning, head-scratching, deferential slave who acted out what he recognized as the role the white world expected of him (actually just external appearance in presence of whites); little revolt from the slaves and makes it seem to the whites that the slaves are okay with their rolesGabriel Prosserin 1800, he gathered 1000 rebellious slaves outside of Richmond; but 2 Africans gave the plot away, and the Virginia militia stymied the uprising before it could begin, along with 35 others he was executed.Nat Turner*slave preacher who led a group of armed African Americans to Southampton County, VA and killed 60 whites before they were stopped by state & federal troops (100+ blacks executed); one of the only outright rebellionsBlack ChristianityBlacks throughout the South developed their own version of Christianity (more emotional, reflected African customs/practices). Used images to express dreams of present freedom.Slave Spiritualssongs that blended biblical themes with realities of slaveryHudson River School*first great school of American painters (New York); Hudson Valley painted by most famous painters because of rugged and largely untamed landscape (to capture undiluted power of nature); underdeveloped lands were greater promise of Old WorldJames Fenimore CooperAmerican novelist who is best remembered for his novels of frontier life, such as The Last of the Mohicans (1826).Ralph Waldo EmersonAmerican transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.Henry David ThoreauAmerican transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War."Resistance to Civil Government"**Thoreau essay on how to civilly defy the government. Explains that an individual's morality has precedence to his actions, and a government that required a violation of these morals had no legitimate authorityTranscendentalistsFollowers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.Brook FarmA transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley"Owenites"Experiments that have values typical of Robert Owen. He believed the experiments should be villages of cooperation in which every resident worked and lived in total equality.Shakers1840s; one of the first religious communal movements; kept men and women separate; failed due to lack of recruitsJoseph SmithFounded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.Book of Mormon*Published by Joseph Smith in 1830. It was named for the ancient prophet who was claimed to have written in. It was, he said, a translation of gold tablets he had found in the hills of New York, revealed to him by an angel of God. It told the story of two successful ancient American civilizations, whose people had anticipated the coming of Christ and were rewarded when Jesus actually came to America after his resurrection. Ultamitly, however, both civilizations collapsed.Phrenologya now abandoned study of the shape of skull as indicative of the strengths of different facultiesHorace ManAmerican educator who was the first secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, suggested reforms in educatioDorothea Dix*began national movement for new methods of treating the mentally ill (believed in the medical model), created first generation of American mental asylums; train and uplift misfits/unfortunates within white societySarah and Angelina GrimkeQuaker sisters from South Carolina who came north and became active in the abolitionist movement; Angelina married Theodore Weld, a leading abolitionist and Sarah wrote and lectured on a variety of reforms including women's rights and abolition.Seneca Falls Convention*(1848) the first national women's rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was writtenAmerican Colonization SocietyA Society that thought slavery was bad. They would buy land in Africa and get free blacks to move there. One of these such colonies was made into what now is Liberia. Most sponsors just wanted to get blacks out of their country.LiberiaA West African nation founded in 1822 by the American Colonization Society to serve as a homeland for free blacks to settleWilliam Lloyd Garrison...The Liberator*An anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.Manifest Destiny*This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.Battle of San Jacinto(1836) Final battle of the Texas Revolution; resulted in the defeat of the Mexican army and independence for Texas.The Oregon TrailThe Oregon trail is the path that those moving West followed. This trail was the most popular of the trails that were blamed in the 1840s, and it played a vital role in the settlement of the West.James K. Polk(1845-1849) The Mexican War starts in 1846. The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ends the war in 1848. Wanted to settle Oregon boundary dispute with Great Britain. Wanted to aquire California and to incorperate Texas into union, while reducing the tarriff and re-establish an independent treasury system."Fifty-four forty or fight!"A campaign slogan, used in the election of 1844, that refers to the latitude 54-40, the northern limit of the disputed Oregon territory between America and the British.Nueces River*Texans claimed the Rio Grande as their western and southern border, but Mexico argued the boundary was always the Nueces River (north of the Rio Grande); Polk supported Texas's claim and sent small army to protect the area from Mexican invasionMexican Warafter disputes over Texas lands that were settled by Mexicans the United States declared war on Mexico in 1846 and by treaty in 1848 took Texas and California and Arizona and New Mexico and Nevada and Utah and part of Colorado and paid Mexico $15,000,000Stephen W. KearnyGeneral that led a detachment of 17,000 troops over the Santa fe Tail from Fort Leavenworth to Santa Fe. Secured California for the US.Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo(1848) treaty signed by the U.S. and Mexico that officially ended the Mexican-American War; Mexico had to give up much of its northern territory to the U.S (Mexican Cession); in exchange the U.S. gave Mexico $15 million and said that Mexicans living in the lands of the Mexican Cession would be protectedWilmot Proviso*Would have banned slavery in any territory acquired in Mex/Am warZachary Taylor(1849-1850), Whig president who was a Southern slave holder, and war hero (Mexican-American War). Won the 1848 election. Surprisingly did not address the issue of slavery at all on his platform. Whig.Free-Soil PartyFormed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.Forty-ninersEasterners who flocked to California after the discovery of gold there. They established claims all over northern California and overwhelmed the existing government. Arrived in 1849.Compromise of 1850*Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican CessionGadsden Purchase(1853) U.S. purchase of land from Mexico that included the southern parts of present-day Arizona and New Mexico; set the current borders of the contiguous United States (the U.S. states, minus Hawaii, Alaska, and commonwealth of Puerto Rico)Stephen A. DouglasSenator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the Kansas-Nebreaska Act and the Freeport DoctrineKansas-Nebraska Act1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.Bleeding Kansas*-Violent events involving pro-slave and anti-slave groups that took place in Kansas Territory attempting to influence whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free or slave stateRepublican Party1854 - anti-slavery Whigs and Democrats, Free Soilers and reformers from the Northwest met and formed party in order to keep slavery out of the territoriesJohn BrownAbolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)Preston BrooksA hot tempered Congressman of South Carolina took vengeance in his own hands. He beat Sumner with a cane until he was restrained by other Senators. He later resigned from his position, but was soon reelected.Free-Soil Ideology*Formed in 1847-1848 dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory. Emergence of this party and others signaled the divisions in American political parties surrounding the issue of slavery. the dominant parties were unable to capture every American's sentiments around slavery. This party was not anti-slavery it just didn't want slavery and slaves becoming a part of the new land acquired after war with Mexico."Slave Power Conspiracy"the idea that the South was engaged in a conspiracy to extend slavery throughout the nation and thus to destroy the openness of northern capitalism and replace it with the closed, aristocratic system of the south, and the only solution was to fight the spread of slavery and extend the nation's democratic ideals to all sections of the country.James Buchanan...Dred Scott Decision*A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.Abraham Lincoln...Crittenden Compromise1860 - attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden - offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by RepublicansFort Sumter*Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil WarHomestead Act1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.Morrill Land Grant Actof 1862, in this act, the federal government had donated public land to the states for the establishment of college; as a result 69 land- grant institutions were established.Greenback Dollar(342) Printing paper currency not backed by gold or silver but the good faith and credit of govt. Value fluctuated. Largest source of financing for the war was loans.Draft riots*A series of violent disturbances in New York City; were the culmination of discontent with new laws passed by Congress to draft men to fight in the Civil War.CopperheadsA group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil WarThe Emancipation Proclamation*During the Civil War in 1856, President Lincoln freed the slaves through an act and written statement in the Confederate statesThirteenth Amendment***1865, the constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.The Sanitary Commission(345) Presented nursing as a profession that made use of the same maternal, nurturing roles women played as wives and mothers. Saw the war as an opportunity to win support.Confederate States of AmericaA republic formed in February of 1861 and composed of the eleven Southern states that seceded from the United StatesJefferson DavisAn American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865ConscriptionA military draft (During the American Civil War a wealthy man could avoid ~ by hiring a substitute to serve in his place)U.S. Grant*leading Union general in the American Civil War.Grant first reached national prominence by taking Forts Henry and Donelson in 1862 in the first Union victories of the war. The following year, his brilliant campaign ending in the surrender of Vicksburg secured Union control of the Mississippi and—with the simultaneous Union victory at Gettysburg—turned the tide of the war in the North'sRobert E. Lee*A General for the confederates, fought many battles. One of his main plans towards the end of the civil war was to wait for a new president to come into office to make peace with. Fought Peninsular Campaign, 2nd battle of Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville (with Jackson), and Gettysburg.Monitor and MerrimackIronclad ships that fought an epic battle during the Civil War (Monitor - North; Merrimack {Virginia} - South); neither won.William SewardSecretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.The Trent affairThis was the first major crisis with Britain after a union warship north of Cuba stopped the British steamer the Trent and removed 2 confederate diplomats destined for Europe. The British government was extremely upset and demanded an apology and the prisoners be set free.First Battle of Bull RunFirst "real" battle of the Civil War, it was expected by Union officials to be short but ended up a Confederate victoryAntietem1862 Civil War battle in whcih 23,000 troops were killed or wounded in one day, Bloodiest Day of the war. Both sides claimed victory. Afterword Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Burnside Bridge.VicksburgGrant besieged the city from May 18 to July 4, 1863, until it surrendered, yielding command of the Mississippi River to the Union.Gettysburg*A large battle in the American Civil War, took place in southern Pennsylvania from July 1 to July 3, 1863. The battle is named after the town on the battlefield. Union General George G. Meade led an army of about 90,000 men to victory against General Robert E. Lee's Confederate army of about 75,000. Gettysburg is the war's most famous battle because of its large size, high cost in lives, location in a northern state, and for President Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.William T. ShermanA Union general and friend of Grant that was given command of the push to the sea. One of the more competent Union generals, he secured the deep south by a total war policy."March to the Sea"*the name commonly given to the Savannah Campaign conducted in late 1864 by Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army during the American Civil War. The campaign began with Sherman's troops leaving the captured city of Atlanta, Georgia, on November 15 and ended with the capture of the port of Savannah on December 22.Appomattox CourthouseApril 1865., the Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil WarFreedman's Bureau1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobsLincoln's plan for Reconstruction*10% of voters from the last election had to pledge to support the union. Pardon all Confederates except high-ranking officials and those who were cruel to POW'sWade-Davis Bill1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.Johnson's plan for Reconstruction*Majority of white men must swear oath of loyalty, new government must ban slaver and ratify 13th Amendment, Confederate officials may vote and hold officeRadical Reconstruction*Reconstruction strategy that was based on severely punishing South for causing war, 1867, removed governments in states not ratifying 14th Amendment, made 5 military districts, state must write a new constitution, ratify 14th Amendment, and allow African Americans to voteBlack CodesLaws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil WarCivil Rights Act of 1866This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.14th Amendment**(1868) granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the U.S. Banned states from denying any person life, liberty, or property without due process of law, and banned states from denying any person equal protection under laws., 1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts15th Amendment*Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitudeImpeachment of Johnson1868 violated the Tenure of Office Act, but really was because of his stubborn defiance of Congress on Reconstruction. Fell one vote shortScalawagA derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate SouthernersCarpetbaggerA northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;Sharecropping*A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.Crop-lien system*System that allowed farmers to get more credit. They used harvested crops to pay back their loans.Grant scandals1869-77; Grant, although personally honest, made bad choices for his administration, and other outside scandals were linked to his presidency; the key ones were: Jay Gould's attempt to corner the gold market, the Whiskey Ring, & the Credit Mobilier debacleGreenbacks/money issue*(386,7) Debtors wanted govt to reddem fed war bonds with greenbacks, increasing money in circulation. Grant and Republicans wanted "sound" currency (gold reserves). 1879: greenback $ redeemed by govt and replaced with certificates (pegged to price of gold), but could not easily expand. Money issue remained one the most controversial/enduring issues in late 1800s politics."Seward's Folly"Secretary of State William Seward's negotiation of the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867. At the time everyone thought this was a mistake to buy Alaska the "ice box" but it turned out to be the biggest bargain since the Louisiana purchaseKu Klux KlanA secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rightsEnforcement Acts1870-71 Three acts passed by Congress allowing the government to use military force to stop violence against former slaves by the KKK. One penalized anyone who restricted another's right to vote; the second Act required all elections to be monitored by Federal officials and marshals; the third Act allowed the suspension of habeas corpus for Klansmen.Compromise of 1877*-Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river; as long as Hayes became the presidentRutherford B. Hayes19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history"Solid" Democratic South*(391) Although many white Southern leaders sympathized with Republican economic polities, they resented Reconstruction (so no support of Republicans). Survives until mid 1900s"Redeemers"Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans."Bourbons"the name given to those Redeemer-Democrats who held political power in Louisiana in the late 1800s; they supported states' rights and white supremacy and did not see the need for change.Henry Gradymanaging editor of Atlanta Constitution; leading advocate of a "New South;" promoted industrial development with Atlanta as its center of growth.Atlanta ConstitutionAtlanta newspaper that became a leader in southern papers; edited by Henry W. Grady and Ralph McGillBooker T. WashingtonAfrican American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality."Atlanta Compromise"*Name of a 1895 speech given by Booker T. Washington. W.E.B. Dubois denounced the speech, arguing that it made Washington leader of his race by the choice of whites.Jim Crow Laws*Any of the laws legalizing racial segregation of blacks and whites that were enacted in Southern states beginning in the 1880s and enforced through the 1950's, laws restricting the franchise and segregating schools were part of a network of state and local statutes which institutionalized an elaborate system of segregation; stripped blacks of many social, economic, and political gains they had previously madePlessy v. Ferguson**(1896) Plessy was made to sit in the black train car because he was an octoroon (1/8 black). Railroad company was on his side because they paid too much to maintain seperate cars. Established "seperate but equal" clauseLynchingThe practice of an angry mob hanging a percieved criminal without regard to due process. In the South, blacks who did not behave as the inferiors to whites might be lynched by white mobs.Ida B. WellsAfrican American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcards or shop in white owned storesTaos Indian RebellionBefore Kearny's government was officially established, this Indian tribe led a rebellion against the government. In the process, they killed the new governor and American officials. The American Army finally stepped in and the rebellion was halted.This resulted in the New Mexico government being ran my the military."coolies"indentured servants whose condition was close to slavery. Many Chinese moved to the United States and other places as this.Chinatowns*By 1900, half of America's Chinese population lived in urban areas. they were led by prominent merchants and kept the Chinese traditions alive with festival.Chinese Exclusion Act*(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.Boom townsThese grew near all the major mining sites and lasted only a few years"long drives"A cattle drive in which Texas ranchers drove herds of cattle north to be sold in northern markets"range wars"A series of fights that occured as a result of farmers wanting to fence their lands which blocked trials and the open range"Rocky Mountain School"a school of thought whose members were influenced by the beauty of the Rocky Mountains and the surrounding landscape. The most famous members were Albert Bierstacht and Thomas Moran. Their works romanticized the West.Albert Bierstadt and Thomas Moranpainters of the "Rocky Mountain School"; romanticized the West; reflects awe; tourismOwen Wisterwrote "The Virginian" 1902. It romanticized the freedom and toughness of the cowboys.The VirginianWestern novel written by Owen Wister. Romanticized the cowboy's supposed freedom from traditional social constraints, his affinity with nature, even his supposed propensity for violence. Wister's Character was a semi-educated man whose natural decency, courage, and compassion made him a powerful symbol of the supposed virtues of the "frontier". This was only the most famous example of a type of literature that soon swept throughout the United States.Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West ShowBuffalo Bill Cody (great showman) was a former Pony Express Rider, Army Scout, and Buffalo Hunter. He toured the country, and added acts to better please his audience. He staged reenactments that brought Sitting Bull from battles into his acts.Frederick Jackson Turner*United States historian who stressed the role of the western frontier in American history (1861-1951)Bureau of Indian Affairs*A department in the Department of the Interior; managed the delivery of goods to Indian Reservations and the upkeep of those areas; highly corrupt which resulted in the theft or sabotage of most of the materials that were supposed to be transported.Sand Creek Massacre*In Colorado territory in 1864, U.S army colonel John M. Chivington led a surprise attack on a peaceful Cheyenne settlement along Sand Creek River. The Cheyenne under Chief Black kettle tried to surrender. First he waved the America Flag and the White flag of surrender. Chivington ignored the gestures. The U.S army killed about 200 Cheyenne during the conflictBattle of the Little Bighorn(Custer's Last Stand) battle between Lakota and Northern Cheyenne, led by Sitting Bull, against the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the US Army; Indians wonChief JosephLeader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservationsGeronimoApache chieftain who raided the white settlers in the Southwest as resistance to being confined to a reservation (1829-1909)Ghost DanceA cult that tried to call the spirits of past warriors to inspire the young braves to fight. It was crushed at the Battle of Wounded Knee after spreading to the Dakota Sioux. The Ghost Dance led to the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. This act tried to reform Indian tribes and turn them into "white" citizens. It did little good.Wounded Knee Massacre*1890 Indian police officers tried to arrest Sitting Bull but when he resisted they shot and killed him, his followers were taken to Wounded Knee and while being disarmed someone fired a shot and the soldiers opened fire and killed over 200 SiouxDawes Severalty Act of 1887*Sponsored by Senator Henry L Dawes, this act dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If the Indians behaved like "good white settlers" then they would get full title to their holdings as well as citizenship. The Dawes Act attempted to assimilate the Indians with the white men.Barbed wireUsed to fence in land on the Great Plains, eventually leading to the end of the open frontier., Invented by Joseph Glidden, it ended open range with boundaries and led to range warsHamlin GarlandHis best-known work is Middle Board, an autobiographical story of the frustrations of life. One of the first authors to write accurately and sympathetically about Native Americans.agrarian malaise*Discontent among farmers, resulting from changes in their economic position after the Civil War. They sought help from states and the federal government, thus abandoning the doctrine of laissez-faire.Alexander Graham Bell1876 - Invented the telephone.Thomas A. Edison*Light bulb. Established lab at Menlo Park, NJ for the purpose of inventing new technologies (first modern research lab); introduced concept of mechanics and engineers working on a project as a team rather than as lone inventors. He invented the light bulb in 1879. He also invented or improved: generators, voltage regulators, electric meters, and insulated wiring. Phonograph, mimeograph, microphone, motion picture camera and film, battery, etcSteel*A form of iron that is both durable and flexible. It was first mass-produced in the 1860s and quickly became the most widely used metal in construction, machinery, and railroad equipment.The Wright BrothersIn 1903, they made the first flight. This achievement meant that people could traverse the world in shorter periods of time."Taylorism"*scientific management, encouraged the development of mass production techniques and the assembly line, led to a revolution in American education of social science.Henry Ford1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.Assembly line*A new manufacturing method pioneered by Henry Ford in 1913. It allowed much more efficient mass production of goods."Limited liability"*A form of business ownership in which the owners are liable only up to the amount of their individual investments.Andrew CarnegieA Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.U.S. Steel*Established in 1901 by J.P. Morgan and Carnegie, it was a combination of steel operations into a single corporationHorizontal IntegrationAbsorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level. A technique used by John D. Rockefeller. Horizontal integration is an act of joining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly. Rockefeller was excellent with using this technique to monopolize certain markets. It is responsible for the majority of his wealth. (SAME TYPE)Vertical Integration(435) Company took over all different businesses on which it relied for its primary function (Carnegie Steel came to control not only steel mills but mines, railroads, etc)John D. RockefellerAggressive energy-industry monopolist who used tough means to build a trust based on "horizontal integration"Standard Oil*Established in 1870, it was a integrated multinational oil corporation lead by RockefellerCombinations/pools/trusts/corporate mergersindustrialists saw consolidation as a way to cope with cutthroat competition; pool arrangements—informal arrangements among various companies to stabilize rates and divide markets (often times would collapse because a few firms would be unwilling to cooperate); trust—stockholders in individual corporations transferred their stocks to a small group of trustees in exchange for shares in the trust itself; corporate mergers—companies buying up rivals, making trusts unnecessaryHerbert Spencer"Survival of the fittest"; Social Darwinism between societies and culturesSocial Darwinism*A social theory which states that the level a person rises to in society and wealth is determined by their genetic background.William Graham SumnerHe was an advocate of Social Darwinism claiming that the rich were a result of natural selection and benefits society. He, like many others promoted the belief of Social Darwinism which justified the rich being rich, and poor being poor."Gospel of Wealth"This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.Horatio Alger: He was a writer of juvenile fiction. His novels held a theme of rags to riches, where poor youth would win fame and money by having virtues of honesty, diligence, and perseverance. Among his collection are Luck and Pluck, Tattered Tom, and his most famous Ragged Dick. By emphasizing merit rather than focusing on social status as the way to determine success, his more than 100 novels had a major impact on the youth of that time.Socialist Labor Party(441) Founded in 1870s & led by Daniel De Leon (West Indies immigrant). Never became a major political force... 1901 faction broke away to form American Socialist Party (stronger ties with organized labor)Henry GeorgeA California printer, journalist, and influential activist whose ideas about taxes and reform, expressed in Progress and Poverty (1879), were widely propagated."Single Tax"George proposed that this would replace all other taxes, which would return the increment to the people. He argued that the tax would destroy monopolies, distribute wealth more equally, and eliminate poverty.Progress and PovertyWritten by Henry George, critical of entreprenuers, after studying poverty in America, determined that rich didn't pay fair share of taxes and proposed "Single Tax" on incremental value of landEdward BellamyWrote Looking Backward; said that captialism supported the few and exploited the many. character wakes up in 2000 after napping; says socialism will be on top in the endLabor Contract Law(443) Permitted industrial employers to pay for passage of workers in advance and deduct amount later from their wages. Repealed in 1885, but employers continued... heightened ethnic tensions within working classMolly MaguiresAn active, militant Irish organization of farmers based in the Pennsylvania anthracite coal fields who are believed responsible for much violenceRailroad Strike of 1877*In response to the cutting of wages for the second time in one year by the B&O railroad. Strikers protested for over a month until federal troops put down the uprising.Terence Powderlyled the Knights of Labor, a skilled and unskilled union, wanted equal pay for equal work, an 8hr work day and to end child laborKnights of Labor*1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. FailedSamuel GompersHe was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.American Federation of Labor*1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.Haymarket BombingThis was a Chicago protest that was peaceful until a policemen was ordered to have the meeting dispersed and a pipe bomb was set off. Four were killed as police fire broke out, seven anarchists were arrested and sentenced to death.AnarchismA political theory favoring the abolition of governmentsHenry Clay FrickUnited States industrialist who amassed a fortune in the steel industry (1849-1919)Homestead strike*1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.Pinkerton DetectivesPrivate, well-paid detectives who were hired to put down the Homestead Strike, but failed in the end and were forced to surrender.Eugene V. Debs*Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.Pullman Strikein Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing"new immigrants"*immigrants who had come to the US after the 1880s from southern and eastern europeAmerican Protective AssociationAn organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration"City Beautiful" movementarchitects and planners from this movement introduced beauty and imposed order in chaotic industrial citiesTenements*Urban apartment buildings that served as housing for poor factory workers. Often poorly constructed and overcrowded.Jacob Riis"How the Other Half Lives"How the Other Half Lives*A book by John Riis that told the public about the lives of the immigrants and those who live in the tenementsSkyscrapersCities expanded upward as well as outward. Buildings get taller and taller. First tall building was 10 story Home Insurance Company Building. Made possible because of invention of elevator and central steam-heating system.Urban sanitation(462) Epidemics beginning in poor neighborhoods usually spread easily into other neighborhoods. Few officials knew improper sewage disposal and water contamination led to epidemic diseases (typhoid/cholera). Many cities lacked adequate systems for disposing human waste until 20th century. Sewage polluted water suppliesPublic Health Servicesets national health policies, medical research, disease prevention, and enforces health and safety standardsSalvation ArmyThis welfare organization came to the US from England in 1880 and sought to provide food, shelter, and employment to the urban poor while preaching temperance and morality.Theodore DreiserAmerican naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.Sister CarrieTheodore Dreiser's novel; single woman who moved to city and worked in shoe factory but then turned to prostitution due to povertyPolitical "machines"unofficial internal organizations which consisted of insiders willing to do party work in exchange for public jobs or the sundry advantages of being connected; tended toward one-man rule although the "boss" ruled more by the consent of the secondary leaders that by his own absolute power; led to intense factionalism due to the high stakes for money, jobs, and influenceUrban Boss*...William M. TweedDemocratic boss of New York City in the 1860s; showed corruption in politics when stole $ millionsTammany Halla political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism"chain stores"(466) Usually offered wider array of goods at lower prices than small, local competing stores. This change in marketing altered how American bought goods.WoolworthsWoolworth created a chain of 600 five-to-ten cent stores where consumers could buy printed musicNational Consumers Leagueformed in the 1890's under the leadership of Florence Kelly, attempted to mobilize the power of women as consumers to force retailers and manufacturing to improve wages and working conditions."leisure"(467,8) Free time increased as people became more compartmentalized (and consumption rose). New economies could create enough wealth to satisfy not only needs but wants for everyone. Some activities were separate between class, race, and gender.Spectator SportsAmericans became fond of watching sports for entertainment as they gained shorter working hours, less restricting values, better advertising, and improved transportationFlorenz ZiegfeldUnited States theatrical producer noted for a series of extravagant revues known as the Ziegfeld Follies (1869-1932), United States theatrical producer noted for a series of extravagant revues known as the Ziegfeld Follies (1869-1932). Gorgeous women in gorgeous costumes. "Glorify the American girl".Vaudeville...D.W. GriffithAn innovative American filmmaker of the early twentieth century. He is famous for his epic silent films, such as The Birth of a Nation, which required huge casts and enormous sets.The Birth of a NationA dramatic silent film from 1915 about the South during and after the Civil War. It was directed by D. W. Griffith. The film, the first so-called spectacular, is considered highly controversial for its portrayal of African-Americans.Coney IslandNew York Island, contained amusement parks and served as center of entertainmentDime NovelsCheaply bound and widely circulated novels that became popular after the Civil War depicting such scenarios from the "Wild West" and other American tales.William Randolph Hearst*A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate "yellow (sensationalist) journalism."Bell telephone system(472,3) Controlled all American telephone service. Signals were weak at first... 1914 repeaters improved and transcontinental line was possible. Most powerful corps in US & a genuine monopoly.Urban realisma movement in writing where people began talking about the realistic life of people in the citiesAshcan SchoolAlso known as The Eight, a group of American Naturalist painters formed in 1907, most of whom had formerly been newspaper illustrators, they beleived in portraying scenes from everyday life in starkly realistic detail. Their 1908 display was the first art show in the U.S.John Singer SargentAmerican painter in England; drew flattering but superficial likeness to British nobility that made him "highly prized"DarwinismA theory that holds that human life originated from the simplest life-forms, that each generation of life passes on to the next generation the genetic traits that best enabled it to survive and reproduceWilliam James1842-1910; Field: functionalism; Contributions: studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; Studies: Pragmatism, The Meaning of TruthPragmatismA philosophy which focuses only on the outcomes and effects of processes and situations."land grant" collegesthe federal government had donated public land to states for the establishment of colleges which led to the creation of 69 land-grant institutions in the last decades of the century; private universities benefited from millions of dollars contributed by business, financial titans, and philanthropistsPrivate Universities*All of the following are exempt from Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 EXCEPTGerm TheoryTheory that infectious diseases are caused by certain microbes. Hypoth by Pasteur, proved by Koch