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Human Growth and Development Final Reivew
Terms in this set (47)
Distinguish between physical, cognitive and psychosocial development.
Physical: any change that occurs to the physical body such as height, weight, puberty, brain development, or motor skills
Cognitive: Mental abilities, thinking, intelligence, and memory
Psychosocial: Changes in personality, social skills, peer influence, and play
Fertilization is the union of egg and sperm to create a new cell, the zygote
List and describe the periods of prenatal development, the timing of each period, and the major developmental events associated with each period.
Germinal Stage (Zygote):
Fertilization to 2 weeks
Shortest stage; fertilized egg attaching to uterus wall; methodical cell division
Embryonic Stage (Embryo):
2 - 8 weeks
All organs and body systems are developed
Fetal Stage (fetus):
8 weeks - birth (longest)
Dramatic size/weight increase; Organs differentiate and become operational; brain sofistication
An environmental factor such as a virus, chemical, or other factor that produces a birth defect
Ex: drugs/alcohol/tobacco, diseases, harmful things in the environment, mothers age and health
Most susceptible to damage in the embryonic period
Describe the stages in the birth process
Stage 1: Dilation- contractions begin to force open the cervix. Ends when the cervix is fully dilated.
Stage 2: Expulsion- from when the baby enters the birth canal to the time the baby is born (episiotomy - an incision made in vagina to allow baby to pass)
Stage 3: Afterbirth- placenta and umbilical chord are delivered
Describe patterns of physical development, brain development, motor development, and sensory development in an infant
Physical development- rapid growth, grow more first year of your life than ever again
Brain development- System that grows the fastest
Motor development- How they move and manipulate objects
Sensory development- All senses function at birth and help infants learn about their environment
Developmental issue of nature vs. nuture
Nature: traits, abilities, and capacities that are inherited from one's parents. Encompasses Maturation. Nurture: environmental influences that shape behavior. Behavior is the result of both; think of as a spectrum with nature and nurture at opposite ends and particular behaviors falling somewhere between the two ends.
Attachment: enduring emotional bond that develops between a child and caregiver
When children experience attachment to a given person, they feel pleasure/comfort with them
Fine motor skills
Fine motor skills: a motor skill that requires control of small muscles to achieve the goal of the skill; any movement involving fingers, hands, and wrists; mainly manipulation.
Ex: drawing, writing, picking up a ball, eating with a fork
Gross motor skills
Gross motor skills: a motor skill that requires the use of large musculature to achieve the goal of the skill; any movement involving large muscle groups like the arms and legs
Ex: walking, running, throwing a ball
Demanding, controlling, harsh punishment, rigid
Children tend to be withdrawn, unsocial, unfriendly, and uneasy
No control, will do anything and everything for their child
Sexual behaviors acceptable for males and females determined by culture
Fail to provide essentials for child's development
Children are worst off, showing disrupted emotional development; feel unloved and emotionally detached and their physical and cognitive development might be impeded as well
Set limits, lots of conversation with their kids, encourage good behavior and punish bad.
Produces best child of all parenting styles. Child will be well disciplined with good social skills
Define puberty and describe physical changes that occur
Puberty: sexual maturation; begins when the pituitary gland in the brain signals other glands to begin producing androgens or estrogens at the adult level
is after other kids their age
Menarchie: Onset of menstruation
Spermarche: A boys first ejaculation
Early puberty/development consequences
Before other kids their age
Early girls have a negative experience: maybe more popular but may not be ready to deal with dating situations; reactions depend on cultural norms. Less slender and "leggy"
Early boys have a positive experience: more athletic and popular, better self-esteem, and grow up to be more cooperative and responsible; also more likely to have school trouble and become more involved in delinquency
Late puberty/development consequences
After other kids their age
Late girls have a positive experience: overlooked and have low social status at first. However, when they catch up their self/body-esteem is high because they are more slender and "leggy"
Late boys have a negative experience: smaller boys seen as less attractive are less athletic, dating lives may suffer, may lead to decline in self-concept. However, coping with these challenges may help late-maturing boys become assertive, insightful, and more creative.
Distinguish between Primary sex characteristics and Secondary sex characteristics
Primary: any change in organs/structures of the body involved with assisting in sexual reproduction
Secondary: any change not associated with sexual reproduction such as hair growth, skin, and voice changes - visible signs
Self-absorption where the world is seen only from one's own perspective
Adolescents are highly critical of authority figures, unwilling to accept criticism, and quick to find fault with others.
Adolescents think they are the focus of everyone else's attention.
Belief that the adolescent is unique and exceptional and shared by no one else.
Differentiate between Kohlberg's three levels of morality
1. Preconventional- making moral decision are based on self interest, what you will receive in return for doing something
2. Conventional Morality- making moral decisions based on other people's expectations of you
3. Postconventional- making moral decisions based on a personal code of ethics
Severe eating disorder
Individuals refuse to eat, while denying that their behavior and appearance, which may become skeletal, are out of the ordinary
Must be 25% underweight and miss 2 menstrual cycles
15-20% starve themselves to death
Binges on large quantities of food, followed by purges of the food through vomiting or the use of laxatives
Chemical imbalance results; can have serious effects including hearth failure
Psychological difficulties for adolescents
Many adolescents experience depressed moods, but only 3% percent experience a major depression.
Depression has several causes, including biological, environmental, and social factors.
Adolescent suicide rates have tripled in the last 30 years; Third most common cause of death for teenagers
More girls attempt suicide than boys but more boys complete it.
One reason for the increase is the increase in teenage stress
History of abuse and/or neglect
Drug and alcohol abuse
Teenage Sexuality- scared of STDs, so early sexual activity in teens has declined lately
Substance abuse (Addictive Drugs and Alcoholics)
Using alcohol and drugs
ADDICTIVE DRUGS produce a biological or psychological dependence in users, leading to increasingly powerful cravings for them.
ALCOHOLICS are persons with alcohol problems who have learned to depend on alcohol and are unable to stop their drinking.
Types of Drug Use
1. Experimental- use just to try
2. Social- use depends on where they are
3. People who use substances to get away from problems often develop substance abuse problems
Identify lifestyle choices that promote physical and mental health, and compare those with lifestyle choices that are detrimental to physical and mental health
Cigarette smoking (doing it vs not)
Alcohol consumption (little/none vs a lot)
Sexual behavior (risky vs safe, num of partners)
Diet and exercise (good habits vs bad)
Stress (coping/reducing vs not)
Number 1 cause of death in older people is heart disease
All of the above lifestyle choices can contribute to heart disease
Describe the physical changes that occur in middle and late adulthood
Physical changes depend on your lifestyle choices (if you've made unhealthy decisions, you will age faster)
Describe the cognitive changes that occur in late adulthood
No uniform pattern of adulthood age-related changes across all intellectual abilities
- Fluid intelligence declines, starting at age 25.
- Crystallized intelligence stays steady
PLASTICITY (modifiability) of behavior, suggests that there is nothing fixed about the changes that may occur in intellectual abilities during late adulthood
Declines in Memory
Primary Memory Losses
Episodic Memory - relates to specific life experiences
Semantic memories - general knowledge and facts
Implicit memories - memories about which people are not consciously aware are largely unaffected
Short-term memory - declines gradually until age 70, when it becomes more pronounced
- Information presented quickly and verbally is forgotten sooner.
- New information is more difficult to recall perhaps because it is not processed as efficiently.
Final phase of life
Four Types of Death
1. Brain Death- no brain activity
2. Clinical Death- no heartbeat or breathing, risk of brain damage
3. Biological Death- body systems begin shutting down, this process is usually irreversible
4. Social Death- person is ill but not yet dead, people are treating them as they are dead already although they are not (Ex: Person in hospital ill but still alive but family members are talking over them in the room discussing what kind of funeral arrangements they will have)
Define mourning and pathological mourning
Mourning: the physical and emotional experience loss causes
Pathological mourning: mourning someone after 2 years or longer as if it happened yesterday
Describe the role of grief work
Grief is the sense of loss, you grieve forever, everyone is different in their grieving manner
Distinguish between active and passive euthanasia
Euthanasia means good death
Active euthanasia: Doing something to kill somebody; for example giving them some type of medicine
Passive euthanasia: Refusing treatment: for example a patient is told they have cancer and have six months to live and he should begin chemo treatments but refusing the treatment knowing that he will die without it
Trust vs. Mistrust (Erikson)
Infancy (Birth to 12-18 months)
Infants develop a sense of trust or mistrust, largely depending on how well their needs are met by their caretakers
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (Erikson)
Toddlers (12-18 months to 3 years)
Toddlers develop either independence and autonomy if they are allowed the freedom to explore, or shame and doubt if they are restricted and overprotected
Initiative vs. Guilt (Erikson)
Preschool (3 - 6)
The period during which children experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action
Industry vs. Inferiority (Erikson)
Middle Childhood (6 - 12)
The period characterized by a focus on efforts to attain competence in meeting the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and the other complexities of the modern world
Identity vs. Identity Confusion (Erikson)
Trying to figure out what you want to do with your life and who you are; seek to determine what is unique and distinctive about themselves
Those who do not find a suitable identity tend to follow a dysfunctional path
Intimacy vs. isolation (Erikson)
Young Adulthood (20-40)
Point in life where you look for a partner to be with
Intimacy: selflessness, sacrificing one's own needs to those of another, joint pleasure from focusing on one's own gratification and partner's. Deep devotion, marked by efforts to fuse one's identity with the identity of the partner
Isolation: those who experience difficulties during this stage are often lonely and isolated, and fearful of relationships with others
Generativity vs. Stagnation (Erikson)
Middle Adulthood (40-65)
Considering their contributions to family, community, work, and society
Generativity: Guiding/encouraging future generations; leaving a lasting contribution(s); looking beyond oneself to the continuation of one's life through others
Stagnation: Focus on the triviality of life and feel they have made only a limited contribution to the world
Integrity vs. Despair (Erikson)
Late Adulthood (65 - up)
Characterized by a process of looking back over one's life, evaluating it, and coming to terms with it
Integrity: People feel they have realized and fulfilled the possibilities that have come their way.
Despair: People feel dissatisfied with their life and experience gloom, unhappiness, depression, anger, or the feeling that they have failed.
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