Sociology Exam 1

What is the subject matter of sociology?
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What is socialization?It is the process through which people learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture.What is diffusion?It refers to the process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society.What is ethnocentrism?It refers to the tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others.What is meant by the debate over nature verses nurture?Debate over nature vs. nurture is about the relative importance of biological and environmental factors in human development.What are the play and game stages of socialization according to G.H. Mead?The play stage is when the child begins to pretend to be other people. The game stage is the child of about eight or nine years old no longer just plays but begins to consider several tasks and relationships simultaneously.Which sociologist is associated with the concepts of the dramaturgical approach and impression management?Erving Goffman is associated with dramaturgical approach and impression management. Dramaturgical approach is a view of social interaction that examines people as if they were theatrical performers. Impression management refers to the altering of the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences.What are Rites of passage?It is a means of dramatizing and validating changes in a person's status. (PG-13, Sweet 16, Quinceanera)What is meant by a total institution and be able to identify examples?It is what regulates all aspects of a person's life under a single authority. Examples: prisons, military, mental hospitals, and convents.What were the aims and outcomes of Philip Zimbardo's study of a simulated prison environment?The mock prison: half were guards and half were prisoners. He wanted to see if the kids conform to the labels given or if they rebel against the labels. THE RESULTS were that the guards became tough enforcers of the rules, cruel, and abusive. The prisoners were depressed, helpless, others were rebellious and angry. IT finished with anxiety and stress of participants.What is meant by achieved and ascribed statuses and be able to identify examples of each?Achieved statuses comes to us largely through our own efforts. ( you did it!) Examples: bank president, prison guard, lawyer, sorority member. Ascribed statuses is "assigned" to a person by society without regard for the person's unique talents or characteristics. Examples: racial background, gender, age (stereotyping).What is a master status and identify examples of one?It is a status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position within society. Examples: a person with AIDs, outweighs a retired athlete, an author, and political activist.What is meant by the concepts of status and role2?Status is a way to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society, from lowest to highest position. Role conflict occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person. Social role is a set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status.What is meant by a primary group vs. a secondary group?Primary group(Cooley) refers to a smal group characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation. Secondary group refers to a formal, impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding.What is meant by a social network?It is a series of social relationships that links a person directly to others, and through them, indirectly to still more people. ( know each other through mutual friends)What is meant by the term social institution?It is organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs, such as replacing personnel and preserving order. (government)What is the main cause of social evolution according to Gerhard Lenski?The main cause is technology. The more technology evolves the more a society does from different ages.What is meant by a post-industrial society and what are its main features?It is a society whose economic system is engaged primarily in the processing and control of information. The main features are reliance on service, especially the processing and control of information; expanded middle class.What are the main features of bureaucracy according to Max Weber?The main features are THE DIVISION OF LABOR which is where specialized experts preform specific tasks. HIERARCHY OF AUTHORITY is each position is under the supervision of a higher authority. WRITTEN RULES AND REGULATIONS is procedures provide a valuable sense of continuity in a bureaucracy. IMPERSONALITY is when officials perform their duties without the personal consideration of people as individuals. EMPLOYMENT BASED ON THE TECHNICAL QUALIFICATIONS is within the ideal bureaucracy, hiring is based on technical qualifications rather than our favoritism, and performance is measured against specific standards.What is meant by the term social control?It refers to the techniques and strategies for preventing deviant behavior in any society.What is meant by the term sanctions?It is penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm.What were the results of Stanley Milgram's experiment?The results were that almost two-thirds of the participants fell into the category of "obedient subject" when they were told to shock another person. There was no evidence that the subjects were unusually sadistic; few seemed to enjoy administering the shocks. The key to obedience in Milgram's view was the experimenter's social role as a "scientist" and "seeker of knowledge".What is meant by informal vs. formal social control and give examples of each?Informal social control is control that people use casually to enforce norms. Example: smiles, laughter, a raised eyebrow, and ridicule. Formal social control is control carried out by authorized agents. Examples: police officers, physicians, School administrators, employers, military officers, and managers of movie theaters.What is meant by deviance?It is behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.What is meant by the term anomie in deviance literature?It is used to describe the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.What are the four types of deviant adaptation according to Robert Merton?INNOVATION which is accepts society's goals but pursues them with means regarded as proper. RITUALISM is abandoned the goal of material success and become compulsively committed to the institutional means. RETREATISM is basically withdrawn from both the goals and the means of society. REBELLION is someone who feels alienated from dominant means and goals may seek a dramatically different social order.Who developed the theory of differential association and what did the theory say?Edwin Sutherland the theory of differential association. The theory is used to describe the process through which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to rule violations.What is meant by social disorganization as a theory of deviance?It says increases in crime and deviance can be attributed to the absence or breakdown of communal relationship and social institutions, such as family, school, church, and local government.What were the main conclusions of William Chambliss's study of the Saints and the Roughnecks?William Chambliss's study on Saints (high school males that engaged in excessive drinking, petty theft, and vandalism) and Roughnecks (getting in trouble with the police and townspeople). The main conclusions were that social class played an important role in the varying fortunes of the two groups. The Saints hid behind a facade of responsibility, came from "good families", received good grades, and planned on going to college. Roughnecks had no such aura of responsibility, beat up cars, and unsuccessful in school.What is meant by the labeling theory of deviance and be able to identify examples?It is used to attempt to explain why certain people (such as Roughnecks) are viewed as deviants, delinquents, "bad kids", "losers", and criminals, while others whose behavior is similar (such as the Saints) are not seen in such a harsh way.How is crime defined?Crime is a violation of criminal law for which some governmental authority applies formal penalties.What are the most important aspect of a professional criminal's work?It is a person who pursues a crime as a day to day occupation. Also developing skilled techniques and enjoying a certain degree of status among other criminals.What are the main features of white-collar crimes?The main features are of white-collar crime are illegal acts committed in business activities, by affluent, or "respectable" people. Corporate crime, an act by a corporation that is punishable by law, like tax fraud, environmental pollution, manipulation, and worker health and safety violations.How is social stratification defined by sociologist?It is the structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power.How is wealth distinguished from Income?WEALTH is an inclusive term encompassing all a person's material assets, including land, stocks, and other property. INCOME is just your salary and wages.What are slavery and the caste system as forms of stratification?SLAVERY as a stratification is the most extreme form of legalized social inequality for individuals or groups. It is that enslaved individuals are owned by other people, who treat these human beings as property, just as if they were household pets or appliances. CASTE are hereditary systems of rank, usually religiously dictated, that tend to be fixed and immobile.What are the three main components of stratification according to Max weber?CLASS which is a group of people who have a similar level of wealth and income. STATUS GROUP is people who have the same prestige or lifestyle. POWER is the ability to exercise one's will over others.What did Thorstein Veblen mean by conspicuous consumption?It means people at the top of the hierarchy convert part of their money into purchasing more automobiles than they can reasonably use and building houses with more rooms than they can possibly occupy.What are the main features of multinational corporations?The main feature of multinational corporations are they do business throughout the world but have a headquarters in one country. They are private traders and have lending relationships, but they also produce goods. Foreign sales are an important source of profit, huge turnover from global operations. It comes up with new ways to operate, and they are integrated of small companies in many countries, and the economic conditions are always increasing so they can take over small industries.What is the difference between intergenerational and intragenerational mobility and be able to identify examples of each?INTERGENERATIONAL MOBILITY involves changes in the social position of children relative to their parents. Examples: a plumber whose father was a physician has downward intergenerational mobility. A film star whose parents were factory workers illustrates an upward intergenerational mobility. INTRAGENERATIONAL MOBILITY involves changes in a person's social position within his or hr adult life. Examples: a woman is paid labor for being a teachers aid and eventually she becomes the superintendent of the school district, this is upward intragenerational mobility. A taxicab driver used to be an accountant at his accounting firm that went bankrupt, undergoes a downward intragenerational mobility.