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Chapter 4 Review
Terms in this set (53)
Britain's army of well-trained soldiers known as Redcoats for their uniforms.
Battle of Saratoga
A revolutionary war battle in New York that resulted in a major defear of the British., American victory over British troops in 1777 that was a turning point in the American Revolution.
location in Pennsylvania where the Continental Army spent the Winter of 1777-17778 under extremely harsh conditions.Poorly housed, dressed, and fed, many died from cold and starvation.
increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money.
Marquis de Lafayette
French statement officer who viewed the American Revolution as important to the world; he helped finance the Revolution and served as a major general.
A fourth MA regiment soldier, actually a woman (Deborah Sampson) disguised as a man to fight in the colonial army.
The wife of a soldier, she earned this nickname "Molly Pitcher" by carring pitchers of water to soldiers. When her husband was wounded, she took his place firing a cannon
Second Continental Congress
In May 1775 a few weeks after Lexington and Concord, they met in Philadelphia; Political authority that directed the struggle for independence beginning in 1775.
American statesman; he was a member of two continental congresses, chairman of the committee to draft the declaration of Independence, the Declaration's main author and one of it's signers, and the third president of the united states.
The official army of the colonies, created by second continental congress and led by George Washington
American statesman; he was a delegate to the Continental Congress, a member of the committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence, vice president to George Washington and second president of the United States.
Battle of Bunker Hill
First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths.
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence.
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)
1776: a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Virginia Declaration of Rights
A document drafted in Virginia in 1776 to proclaim the rights of men, written by George Mason
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.
Decided that the colonists should pay for the British troops in America used for "colonist protection" (really used to intimidate the colonists) and began taxing the colonists to raise money
-tax on sugar and molasses imported from the French and Spanish West Indies
-colonists feared that this would hurt rum business, as molasses was used to make rum
Rum so important because it was safer to drink than water
-started, "No taxation without representation"
-introduced idea of the Committee of Correspondence
-was target, along with John Hancock, during the Battle of Lexington and Concord
-passed by Grenville in 1765
-required a government stamp on all legal documents
*ie. contracts, licences, newspapers, ect
-mostly affected the people with a public opinion, like merchants, printers, ministers, shopkeepers, ect
-caused Stamp Act Congress
-repealed after sales dropped due to boycotts
-Proposed that Virginians should only pay taxes voted by their own assembly
-Spoke at First Continental Congress, "I am no longer an Virginian, but an American"
Stamp Act Congress
-organized in Massachusetts to protest the Stamp Act
-delegates from 9 colonies met in New York to send a petition, stating that Parliament didn't have the right to tax them without representation, to Parliament and King George III
Sons/Daughters of Liberty
-organized protest in response to Britain's laws, often boycotting British goods
-at first made up of unskilled workers (small farmers, workers, ect) but later included more prominent figures (merchants, lawyers, ect.)
-stated that colonists must find housing for the British soldiers stationed in America
-colonists saw as an attack on their rights
-taxed all lead, paint, paper, glass, and tea that was imported from England
writs of assistance
-gave customs officers the right to search colonisal homes for smuggled goods without a search warrant
-violated privacy to ones house
-an incident, where colonists taunted British soldiers, who responded by shooting and killing five colonists, including African-American sailor, Crispus Attucks
-first casualties of the Revolution
-cousin to Sam Adams
-defended the soldiers who shot colonists during the Boston Massacre to make sure that the law was being followed
Committee of Correspondence
-committee created by the Massachusetts House of Representatives in the 1760's to help towns and colonies share about resisting British law
-network that unified the colonies
-led to Boston Tea Party
-made and passed by Lord North
-tax on tea
-led to one of the earliest organized political efforts by women: women in North Carolina met and decided to boycott tea
-prime minister of England
-passed the Tea Act
-Passed Intolerable Acts (after BTP)
-passed by Lord North as punishment for the Boston Tea Party
1.closed Boston Harbor
2.royal government had more power in colonies
*hire/fire local officials
*limit town meetings
-passed to incorporate French settlements won in the French and Indian War into British North America
-expanded the province of Quebec south to Ohio River Valley and west to the Mississippi River
-caused colonist alarm
*assumed would limit their chance to settle on the western frontiers
*threatened security of France allying themselves with the Americans during the war
First Continental Congress
-meeting of colonial delegates in Philadelphia to describe how to respond to the abuses of authority from the British
-brought to colonists together
-almost passed a plan for union (similar to Albany Plan of Union)
-issued Declaration of Rights
Declaration of Rights
-created at the First Continental Congress
-protested Englands actions and reflected the delegates mixed views (moderate to radical)
-accepted Parliaments right to regulate trade, but called for the removal of British troops and the repeal of taxes and the Intolerable Acts
-colonial soldiers who would be ready to resist a British attack with short notice
-formed at the First Continental Congress
-became hostile towards the colonists
-tried to intimidate them by showing off his army
-Commander during the Battles of Lexington and Concord
King George III
-King of England during American Revolution
-ordered Gage to take troops in an effort to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock, and seize colonial gunpowder
- a secret system put in place to warn the minutemen of any unusual activity of Gage's troops in Boston (watched Gage's preparations of war)
-Paul Revere, William Dawes, Samuel Prescott
-leader of British during Battle of Lexington and Concord
-"Ye villains, ye rebels, disperse"
Battle of Lexington
-British soldiers badly outnumbered colonists
-colonists told by leader to run, but instead charged forward and attacked the British
-8 colonists killed and militia fled to Concord
-"Shot heard 'round the world"
Battle of Concord
-hundreds of militiamen were assembled and ready for the British troops
-British and Colonists exchanged gunfire
-British forced to turn and retreat to Boston
James Armistead Lafayette
Slave who volunteered and became a double agent giving information to the Americans and inaccurate information to the British.
George Rogers Clark
Led victorious American forces in the West on the Ohio and Missippi Rivers at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes.
War in the South
British expected more Loyalist support but found patriot support was stronger than they thought and loyalists were reluctant to help.
Negotiated the treaties with France that formally recognized the US as a nation and offered military help.
Count de Rochambeau
French leader of 6,000 French troops sent to help the Americans defeat the British.
Battle of Yorktown
A three week long siege by the Americas and French that trapped most of the British army at Yorktown, VA. Cornwallis' forces surrender to Washington, ending the Revolutionary War.
American General during the Revolution and commander of the Army of the South; he is credited with having saved the Southern Colonies from the British Army.
A British general, he lost to Nathaniel Green in one campaign. He was humiliated by his defeat in the colonies. He finally lost at the Battle of Yorktown, commonly known as the end of the war, in 1781.
Bernardo de Galvez
Governor of Spanish Louisiana; he captured key cities from the British, greatly aiding the American Patriot movement and enabling the Spanish inquisition of Florida.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
Ended the Revolution, recognized American Independence, granted all land south of Canada to Florida & Atlantic to Mississippi to Americans
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