Chapter 11: Inner and Eastern Asia (Eileen Flood)
Terms in this set (42)
"Great Vehicle" branch of Buddhism followed in China, Japan, and Central Asia. The focus is on reverence for Buddha and for bodhisattvas, enlightened persons who have postponed nirvana to help others attain enlightenment.
From Han times, independent countries acknowledged the Chinese emperor's supremacy.
took place in Canton and South China in the early 600's. The disease followed trade and embassy routes to KOrea, Japan, and Tibet where initial outbreaks followed the establishment of diplomatic ties in the seventh century.
new techniques in building China's main oceangoing ship, stern mounted rudder improved the steering and water tight bulkheads helped keep it afloat in emergencies.
Song experimented with this to counter cavalry assaults, initially used to propel clusters of flaming arrows.
Chan (Zen) Buddhism
"Chan Buddhism" asserted that mental discipline alone could win salvation
new interpretations of Confucian teachings, Zhu Xi (1130-1200) most important early neo-confucian thinker.
civil service exams that all government officials had to pass in order to become a state official.
Chinese art of writing
"Flying money" and "flying money" certificates
The Song system of credit was based on guarantees that paper money could be redeemed for coinage.
Practice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household (small feet considered attractive)
The practice of identifying special individuals (shamans) who will interact with spirits for the benefit of the community. Characteristic of the Korean kingdoms of the early medieval period and of early societies of Central Asia.
House of Koryo
(early 900's) the ruling class derived from the Tang in Korea.
allowed cheaper printing of many kinds of informative books and of test materials.
"heavenly emperor" the official title of the emperor of japan
"Way of the kami (spirits)"; and indigenous religion of Japan that holds that everything in nature has a spirit; believers perform ceremonies to ask for the blessings of the spirits; traditionally, Shinto believers venerated the emperor.
Class of warriors in feudal Japan who pledged loyalty to a noble in return for land.
a tribute gift brought to the Song court by Champa emissaries, fast maturing variety that improved their yields of the essential crop.
capital city of the Tang Empire
1,100 mile canal built by the Sui to link the Yellow river with the Yangzi and did not reach Chang'an although it was a key component of the transportation network.
Began in 794 after the movement of the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō (present day Kyōto), by the 50th emperor, Emperor Kammu. Considered a high point in Japanese culture that later generations have always admired. The period is also noted for the rise of the samurai class, which would eventually take power and start the feudal period of Japan.
Under this empire China was reunified and reestablished with Confucianism. They also built the Grand Canal and repaired the Great Wall while extending the empire into Korea and Vietnam. Overextension eventually led to the Tang taking power.
(618-755) succeeding rulers of this empire retained many Sui governing systems, avoided over-centralization by allowing local nobles, gentry, officials, and religious establishments to exercise significant power
Only rival to the Tang in Inner Asia, derived much of their culture and knowledge from outside countries.
the Chinese-speaking Song Empire, came into being in 960 in central China. (third state of China)
916-1121. Mongolia and Northern China. Ceramics, painting, armies (cavalry and seize craft). 1110- Song made alliance with Jurchens (neighbors). Song took over.
Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated Koguryo along with their Chinese Tang allies; submitted as a vassal of the Tang emperor and agreed to tribute payment; ruled united Korea by 668.
1156-1185 first of three decentralized military governments in eastern Honshu
Annam (Dai Viet)
Kingdom in what is now northern Vietnam, Influenced by China. Often fought with Champa. Defeated Champ and created unifed state. Preserved tradition of group landowning and decision making within village, preserved women's property rights.
Located in what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 7th century through to 1832, before being conquered and annexed by Vietnam.
"During the T'ang Dynasty, this Central Asian territory traded horses for exorbitant amounts of Chinese silk, and demanded Chinese princesses as brides for their rulers
Emperor who extended his power primarily westward into Inner Asia, adopted the dynastic name Tang
the only woman to assume the title of emperor for herself in China
Nomadic peoples of Manchuria; militarily superior to Song dynasty China but influenced by Chinese culture; forced humiliating treaties on Song China in 11th century
Founders of the Qin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of Yellow River basin and forced Song to flee to south
Huang Chao Rebellion
The second, most devastating rebellion of the Tang dynasty, coming almost 100 years after the An Lushan rebellion (879-881). consisted of poor farmers who could not protect themselves. SIG- helped lead to the fall of the Tang and aided in barbarian hatred.
The Tale of the Heike
The 13th-century Japanese novel, incorporates the Buddhist idea of the transience of life and the illusory nature of glory, warrior story.
The Tale of Genji
the earliest romance novel written by an ancient Indian female royal.
Outline the characteristics of Tang trade and integration.
During the Tang Dynasty, the silk trade was strong and reached unprecedented levels. Courier stations were set up along the main trading route in order to provide food and shelter for traveling traders and messengers. A registration system was set up and traders had to pay a tax in order to receive a road pass.
Outline the Tang repression of Buddhism.
Like monasteries during the Dark Ages in Middle Ages Europe, during the Tang Dynasty, Buddhist temples became wealthy and influential, thanks to the patronage of several emperors. When Emperor Wuzong took control in 840 CE, he was a Taoist and objected to all "foreign" religions. Thus Buddhism, along with other imported religions were persecuted. (Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism were virtually eliminated.) More practically, Buddhist monasteries were exempt from taxes, infuriating Wuzong, and resulting in the destruction of 4,600 Buddhist monasteries and 40,000 temples in 845 CE. And then he seized their land as his own property.
Outline the characteristics of Song trade and industries.
Farmers grew mulberry trees to harvest silkworm and sugar cane especially during the Song dynasty. There was increased production and prosperity in the Iron, Steel, and gunpowder industries.
What role did women have in Song China? Did women play a different role in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam?
Song China marked the beginning of a long period of cultural subordination, legal disenfranchisement, and social restriction for women. This was primarily a consequence of the Confucian hierarchical structure and the rise of new elite classes, particularly merchants. For instance, although a woman might have to assume a role in her husband's business, she was prohibited from having property or a business of her own. The subjugation obvious in footbinding, which was practiced by the elite. Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, however, did not practice footbinding. Although they played a subordinate role, women did have different experiences in these states. For example, Japanese women of the elite classes were literate and made cultural contributions by writing diaries, poems, and novels, such as the Tale of Genji. In Korea, women played a role in negotiating and disposing of property.