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66 terms

Chapter 6 SCIENCE

STUDY
PLAY
pH
a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is
neutral
7 on a pH scale
ACIDIC
below 7 on pH scale
BASIC
above 7 on pH scale
Hydrogen ions (H+)
Acids contain what kind of ions?
acid
any substance that forms hydrogen ions in water
hydrochloric acid
hydrogen chloride in a solution with water as a solvent
base
any substance that forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in water
diffusion
the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
osmosis
a special case of diffusion involving the movement of water from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
small and soluble
Molecules which move by diffusion must be
pores
cell membrane contains many
semi¬permeable
selectively permeable
ALL
The cell wall allows ____ molecules to pass through it
SELECT
The cell membrane allows _______ to pass through it
large
Starch is a ____ molecule.
small
Oxygen and glucose are _____ molecules.
hypotonic
_______ solution has lots of salt inside
hypertonic
_________ solution has lots of salt outside
isotonic
_______ solution is equal to surrounding areas
water enters by osmosis causing the cell to swell and burst.
OSMOSIS - ANIMAL CELL - Hypotonic
water leaves by osmosis causing the cell to shrivel
OSMOSIS - ANIMAL CELL - Hypertonic
No noticeable difference
OSMOSIS - ANIMAL CELL - Isotonic
Water enters by osmosis causing the cell to swell.
OSMOSIS - PLANT CELL - hypotonic
bursting
the plant cell wall prevents :
Water leaves by osmosis. This causes the vacuole to shrink and the cell membrane to shrink away from the cell wall
OSMOSIS - PLANT CELL - hypertonic
no difference
OSMOSIS - PLANT CELL - Isotonic
TURGID
Water enters by osmosis causing the cell to swell. The CELL WALL prevents bursting. This cell is described as
PLASMOLYSED
Water leaves by osmosis. This causes the vacuole to shrink and the cell membrane to shrink away from the cell wall
COVALENT
which type of chemical bonds are electrons shared equally?
isotopes
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons are called
Base because bases have OH
is this an acid or a base? why? < Ca(OH)2 >
45
The total number of atoms in a molecule of sucrose, C12H22O11, is
proteins
The various enzymes in our bodies are
nitrogen
Unlike carbohydrates and fats, proteins contain
Double bonds
An unsaturated lipid contains what kind of bonds?
Dehydration synthesis
When molecules of glucose and fructose combine to form sucrose, they do so by
amino acids
What are the basic building blocks of proteins?
polymer
What is the name of a large molecule that is formed when small molecules combine?
enzymes
what acts as catalysts in chemical reactions?
d. starch
Which of the following is a polysaccharide?
a. Glucose b. fructose c. sucrose d. starch
acidic
When a solution has more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions, it is considered ___
arrangement of atoms
Glucose and fructose, with the formula C6H12O6, differ in _____
c. pressure
Which of these does not affect the rate of diffusion?
a. kinetic energy b. concentration of substances
c. pressure d. temperature
d. have serious, perhaps fatal consequences because the red blood cells would tend to
burst.
In an attempt to replenish body fluids, a patient who has had a serious hemorrhage accidentally receives a large transfusion of distilled water directly into one of his veins. This would probably:
a. have no unfavorable effect as long as the water is free of bacteria.
b. have serious, perhaps fatal consequences because there would be too much fluid for
the heart to pump.
c. have serious, perhaps fatal consequences because the red blood cells would tend to
shrivel.
d. have serious, perhaps fatal consequences because the red blood cells would tend to
burst.
highest disorder, lowest energy
Reactions in nature tend towards
water
What molecule is often removed when monomers combine to form a polymer?
lipids
Fats, oils, and waxes belong to a group of organic compounds called
carbohydrates
The principle energy storing molecules in most living things are
water is added
In a hydrolysis reaction:
Arrangement of amino acids; different number of amino acids; shape of molecule
How is it possible for each species to contain thousands of unique proteins despite the limited number of amino acids from which these molecules are made? List two reasons.
Because a main source of protein for humans is meats like chicken and fish
Explain why vegetarians must be careful to achieve adequate protein intake in their diets
decrease or stop metabolism
How would a lack of enzymes affect cell metabolism?
Because they give a quick burst of energy - body&#039;s first source of energy
Why are sugars biologically important compounds?
stands for pondus hydrogenii which means potential hydrogen
what does pH mean?
ionization
formation of ions from a covalent solute in aqueous solution
corrosive
eats through some metals
acid bc H
is this acidic or basic?
H2SO4
enzymes
proteins which help speed up chemical reactions
speed up
Enzymes ___ reactions
catalyst
chemical that speeds up the rate of reaction without being used up by the reaction.
substrate
The reactant that an enzyme acts on is the
active site
a certain area of the enzyme where the reaction occurs
kinetic energy
Why does temperature affect the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions?
affects the structure of proteins. If the shape of the active site changes, it will no longer match the substrate as well
Why does pH affect the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions?
cofactors
nonprotein helpers