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embryo of a living plant that is encased in a protective covering and surrounded by a food supply.


Layer of sporophyte tissue that contributes to the structure of an ovule of a seed plant.


A structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the female gametophyte.

pollen grain

Structure consisting of a few haploid cells surrounded by a thick protective wall that contains a male gametophyte of a seed plant.


the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants.


An extinct seedless vascular plant that may be ancestral to seed plants.


Leaflike parts that cover and protect the flower bud.


modified leaves which are usually bright in color to attract pollinators.


The pollen-producing male reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and filament.


stalk that supports the anther.


male reproductive part that produces pollen.


innermost part of a flower that produce the female gametophytes.


The sticky part of a flower's carpel, which traps pollen grains.


narrow stalk of the carpel in a flower.


in flowering plants, the lower part of a pistil that produces eggs in ovules.


A mature ovary of a flower that protects dormant seeds and aids in their dispersal.

embryo sac

The female gametophyte of angiosperms, formed from the growth and division of the megaspore into a multicellular structure with eight haploid nuclei.

cross pollination

pollen from one flower transfered to the sticky stigma of another flower.


in the ovules of seed plants, the opening in the integuments through which the pollen tube usually enters.

double fertilization

A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms, in which two sperm cells unite with two cells in the embryo sac to form the zygote and endosperm.


the stored food inside one or two seed leaves.


In angiosperms, a nutrient-rich tissue formed by the union of a sperm with two polar nuclei during double fertilization. The endosperm provides nourishment to the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds.


A clade consisting of flowering plants that have one embyonic seed leaf, or cotyledon.


angiosperm whose seeds have two cotyledons.


Member of a clade consisting of the vast majority of flowering plants that have two embryonic seed leaves, or cotyledons.

basal angiosperms

Member of a clade of three early-diverging lineages of flowering plants. Examples are Amborella, water lilies, and star anise and its relatives.


A flowering plant clade that evolved later than basal angiosperms but before monocots and eudicots. Extant examples are magnolias, laurels, and black pepper plants.

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