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embryo of a living plant that is encased in a protective covering and surrounded by a food supply.
Layer of sporophyte tissue that contributes to the structure of an ovule of a seed plant.
A structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the female gametophyte.
Structure consisting of a few haploid cells surrounded by a thick protective wall that contains a male gametophyte of a seed plant.
the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants.
The pollen-producing male reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and filament.
The female gametophyte of angiosperms, formed from the growth and division of the megaspore into a multicellular structure with eight haploid nuclei.
in the ovules of seed plants, the opening in the integuments through which the pollen tube usually enters.
A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms, in which two sperm cells unite with two cells in the embryo sac to form the zygote and endosperm.
In angiosperms, a nutrient-rich tissue formed by the union of a sperm with two polar nuclei during double fertilization. The endosperm provides nourishment to the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds.
Member of a clade consisting of the vast majority of flowering plants that have two embryonic seed leaves, or cotyledons.
Member of a clade of three early-diverging lineages of flowering plants. Examples are Amborella, water lilies, and star anise and its relatives.
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