Terms in this set (22)
Aaron Burr served as vice president to Alexander Hamilton. H accepted the Federalist proposal to become candidate for governor of New York. Rumors circulated that he had supported Federalist plans for succession so Hamilton accused Burr of plotting treason. Burr blamed Hamilton for his defeat in the election and challenged Hamilton to a duel. Hamilton died soon after the duel due to battle wounds. Burr became a political outcast and was forced to flee to New York to avoid an indictment for murder. Rumors spread again that Burr planned on separating the Southwest from the United States and creating a western empire in which he would rule. The Burr conspiracy was a symbol of the larger perils of weak central government still facing the new nation.
Deism originated among Enlightenment philosophers in France. Its followers accept the existence of God but consider Him a remote being who withdrew from the universe after creating it. He has not involvement with the human race.
Eli Whitney 191
A Massachusetts man who attended Yale and revolutionized cotton production and weapon manufacturing. As the textile industry grew, so did the demand for cotton. The greatest obstacle was separating the seeds form cotton fiber. In 1793, Whitney invented the cotton gin to perform this task quickly and efficiently. It was simply mechanized but it did a day's worth of work on just a few hours.
Hartford Convention 213
Delegates from the New England states met in Hartford, CT to discuss their opinions on succession. Those who favored it were outnumbered. The convention's report hinted at succession but it also reasserted the right of nullification and proposed seven amendments to the Constitution. The new amendments were designed to protect New England from influences from the South and West.
Few men volunteered to fight for the British navy due to low pay and terrible shipboard conditions. Most were forced or impressed into the service.
John Marshall 199
John Marshall was the chief of justice of the United States at the time of the Marbury v. Madison case. He served as John Adams' secretary of state and established himself as the dominant figure on the Court. He established the judiciary as a branch of government coequal with the executive and legislative.
Marbury V. Madison 198-199
Before Adams left office, he appointed William Marbury as justice of the peace in D.C. Marbury's papers had not been delivered, although they were already signed and sealed, before Adams left office. When Jefferson became president, his secretary of state, James Madison refused to hand over the paperwork. Marbury took the case to the Supreme Court. The Court stated that Marbury had a right to his commission but they had no authority to order Madison to deliver it.
Mercy Otis Warren 187
An influential playwright during the 1770s. Her literature emphasized the heroism of the American struggle.
Noah Webster 186
A Connecticut schoolmaster and lawyer who believed that American students should be educated with American thoughts. He wanted a simple Americanized spelling system so he published the American Spelling Book in 1783 which came second to the Bible of the best-selling book in American history. His book and dictionary established a national standard of words and usages.
Robert Fulton 193
Robert Fulton, along with Robert Livingston perfected the steamboat. They rebuilt it with paddle wheels and an English-built engine. To demonstrate the efficiency of their boat, they sailed up the Hudson River. After introducing the improved steamboat to the West, the boat began a service career between New Orleans and Natchez.
Second Great Awakening 187
When the surge of religious rationalization became to much for the conservatively religious to bear, the Second Awakening began. Led by the efforts of primarily Methodist and Baptist church leaders, the Second Great Awakening led to the increase of faith and established new beliefs in faith, such as salvation through both good deeds and faith and increased active piety. Its religious fervor rivaled that of the Great Awakening sixty years before.
Tecumseh was a Shawnee tribe chief who militantly struggled against the fast approaching white settlement. He warned his people against white-man avarice and called for an active display of rebellion.
The Embargo 206
The Embargo was an Act put in place by president Thomas Jefferson in response to the numerous attacks on American merchant and naval vessels by the British and French. It essentially stated that American vessels were not allowed to trade with any foreign ports. While the Embargo had the desired effect of limiting the damage done to US vessels, the impacts on the economy were horrendous. Many merchants found ways around it, but enough trade was prevented to cause a depression and begin fueling the War of 1812.
The Prophet (Tenskwatawa), 209
Brother of Tecumseh, The Prophet was a recovered alcoholic who began preaching against white-man follies. He occupied an area the Indians called Prophetstown, including the Tippecanoe Creek and Wabash River. He gained an almost Zealot-like following. He argued that the trade with Anglos and borrowing their culture would end in the death of Indian ways.
Tecumseh & Battle of Tippecanoe, 209
When Tecumseh and his brother gained enough followers by uniting tribes in the Mississippi Valley, they began harassing nearby white settlements. Harrison decided that enough was enough and launched an attack on Tecumseh's home tribe when he was away. It was an American victory. This was later called the Battle of Tippecanoe, for the nearby creek and disillusioned many of the brothers' followers because they had been sure that the magic of the Prophet would protect them. Tecumseh fled to Canada and ended up serving as a brigade general in the British Army. Nonetheless, Indians continued to harass white settlers.
Toussaint L'Ouverture, 201
Toussaint L'Ouverture was a remarkable black slave under whom other slaves of the French-owned Santo Domingo Island rallied when they tried to revolt against the French. When Napoleon had a brief break with his war in Europe he turned his attentions to the island and crushed the rebellion. While he won control again, this incident was symbolic of the other troubles Napoleon would have with America.
Washington Irving, 186
Washington Irving, named after George Washington, was a New York state resident and a popular novelist. He was famous for his works such as The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle. He was even more loved for his attributions to early life in the Americas and satirical histories of the New World. He would one day become very famous and is still commonly known by readers today.
William Henry Harrison, 207
William Henry Harrison was a young Indian-fighting congressional delegate from Virginia. He was an advocate for westward expansion and was appointed by Jefferson to help take care of the "Indian Problem." The choices offered to the Native Americans were simple, become part of the US or desert any land east of the Mississippi River. Harrison took over from there. He even put down the rebellion instigated by the Shawnee brothers, Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa.
Chesapeake-Leopard Incident, 206
During the British Impressment period, one case became famously noted for the British extremes involved. The American vessel Chesapeake and the British ship Leopard met near Norfolk. The British demanded permission to board the vessel and search for British men. When the commanding officer, Barron, or the Chesapeake refused the Leopard opened fire. Four men were dragged off the Chesapeake. Americans who heard this story were outraged. Jefferson and Madison sent delegates to talk with the British instead of declaring war as many American citizens were calling for. While the British apologized for the whole event and tried to make amends, they would not promise to stop impressment as the delegation wanted.
War of 1812 & Treaty of Ghent 211-213
The War of 1812 was essentially the accumulation of years of tensions building between the Americans and the British with their Indian allies. The Americans declared war on Britain in 1812, but fighting did not begin in earnest until late 1813. Most of the battles were British victories, but the Americans did manage some great victories like the battle at Fort McHenry and the Battle of New Orleans. The treaty of Ghent ended the war but did not really promise much except the end of the fighting. The war did not accomplish much of anything. Other indirect outcomes of the war included the decrease of a Native American presence on the frontier and the death of the Federalist Party.
What was the impact of the second great awakening on women, African-American, and Native Americans?
The Second Great Awakening helped create a broad popular acceptance of the idea that men and women could belong to different churches and still be committed to the same Christian faith. Women began attending religious revivals and responding to their changing economic roles. Many young men moved west which left women at home uncertain about their future. Women found a foundation in religion to build their lives. Many African Americans embraced the new religious fervor. A group of African American preachers became important leaders within the slave community. They translated the message of the awakening that salvation was available to all. Revivalism was strong in Native Americans due to previous tribal experiences. The Second Awakening became a new era of Indian religious prophecy. Missionaries were active among tribes. Handsome Lake, a great prophet, inspired Indians to give up customs that they developed from white society. The revival didn't restore traditional Native American culture. It encouraged them to modernize their roles in society from hunters to farmers and other domestic roles.
How did Americans respond to the Louisiana Purchase?
How an American was likely to have reacted to the Louisiana Purchase strongly depended on that American's level of information, political affiliations and gullibility. People who had access to the accounts of Lewis and Clark, for example would have been generally well informed and could see the benefits this new land had to offer, while those who had access solely to the reports of Lieutenant Zebulon Montgomery Pike would naturally and wrongly assume that all of the land west of the Mississippi is unhospitable and uncultivable. The former account remains far more accurate than the latter. Political parties also had much to do with the acceptance of this Purchase. Jefferson debated whether as president he was even allowed to sign this treaty that expanded the territory of the United States. While he eventually found the support from his advisors and the Constitution he needed, he still received criticism from himself and others calling him a hypocrite and basically saying the Purchase was a mistake. In the end however, Americans came to accept the new lands and began westward expansion and exploration.
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