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120 terms

Global Cultures - Semester Exam Study Guide

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Individualism
Cultures who place more emphasis on the individual rather than the group.
Collectivism
Cultures who place more emphasis on the group rather than the individual.
Patriarchy
Society dominated by males.
Matriarchy
Society dominated by females.
Polygamy
Marriage to multiple spouses.
Monogamy
Marriage to one spouse.
Endogamy
The practice of marrying within one's caste; associated with Hinduism.
Steven Biko
Leader of Black Consciousness Movement; died as a result of South African police brutality.
White Man's Burden
The responsibility to civilize the uncivilized.
Ethnocentrism
The judgement of another culture based upon the standards of one's own.
Assimilation
The full acceptance of another culture's characteristics.
Acculturation
The partial acceptance of another culture's characteristics.
Cultural Relativism
The demonstration of respect for another culture's characteristics.
Cultural Diffusion
The dispersion of "spreading out" of cultural characteristics.
Umfundisi
Priest; sometimes found in South Africa.
Donald Woods
Newspaper editor; aided the efforts of Steve Biko.
Apartheid
Literally means "separateness"; Discriminatory social system of South Africa which elevates South Africans of European origins over the original inhabitants of South Africa.
Afrikaner
A South African of Dutch origins; a white South African.
Afrikaan
Language of a Afrikaner.
W.E.I.R.D.
Western Educated Industrialized Rich and Democratic
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
China
Largest populated country in the world; 1.3 billion people.
Coolie
Unskilled laborer found in Southeast Asia; derogatory term.
Manchu Queue
A braided string of hair worn by many Chinese after being conquered by the Manchurians during the Ch'ing Dynasty.
Panchama
Lowest level of the caste system in India; sometimes considered to be separate from the caste system because of the social disgust associated with this people group; sometimes referred to as "untouchables."
Coal
70% of China's energy comes from burning this resource in their power plants; consequently, China has some terrible issues concerning smog and pollution.
India
Country in which Hinduism dominates the social and cultural practices.
"White Man's Burden"
The responsibility to "civilize the uncivilized."
Rudyard Kipling
Author of the "White Man's Burden."
John Locke
Disagreed with the concept of the Divine Right of the Kings; appreciated the concept of a free market economy; declared the power of society is found within the people, not in government.
Arctic Circle
66 1/2 degrees north; line of latitude.
Antarctic Circle
66 1/2 degrees south; line of latitude.
Tropic of Cancer
23 1/2 degrees north; line of latitude.
Tropic of Capricorn
23 1/2 degrees south; line of latitude.
Parallel
Another name for a line of latitude.
Meridian
Another name for a line of longitude.
SUBSEARCH
Skim, Underline, Bracket, Symbols, Enumerate, Abbreviate, React and Connect, Highlight.
Cyrus the Great
First individual in human history to establish human rights.
Colonization
The process of establishing colonies throughout foreign regions of the world; an aspect of imperialism.
Imperialism
An attempt to build a large world empire.
Media
Most influential instrument of spreading aspects of culture in our society today.
Material Culture
Aspects of culture that are concrete or tangible.
Non-material Culture
Aspects of culture that are abstract.
Galebayah
Traditional dress worn in the Middle East.
Shalom
Traditional greeting in the Middle East; "peace be with you."
Torah
Holy text of Judaism.
Koran
Holy text of Islam.
Bible
Holy text of Christianity.
Upanishad
108 sacred teachings of Hinduism; commentary on the original Vedas - later made sacred.
Vedas
Original text of the Hindu faith.
Dharma
Duties associated with each caste of Hinduism.
Moksha Nirvana
Ultimate goal of a follower of Hinduism.
Mosque
Place of worship for faithful Muslims.
Synagogue
Place of worship for faithful Jews.
Ka'aba
Black cube; the destination of many Muslims' pilgrimage to Mecca.
Dome of the Rock
Place of importance for many Muslims in Jerusalem; contains the rock from which Muhammad ascended into heaven.
Church of the Holy Sepulcher
Place of importance in Jerusalem for many Christians; contains the tomb of Jesus according to some Christian doctrine.
West Wall
Place of importance in Jerusalem for many Jews; this is the remaining structure of Solomon's Temple.
Russia
World's second leading producer of oil.
United States
World's leading producer and consumer of oil.
More than 7 Billion
Population of the world.
4-2-1 phenomenon
Current social problem in China created by the One Child Policy - too many grandparents and parents with not enough young people to care for them.
Six Day War
Arab-Israeli conflict that took place in 1967; did not last long.
Zionism
Jewish movement to regain control of the Holy Land.
Pope Urban II
Pope who proposed/initiated the Crusades.
Palestinian Territories
Gaza Strip, Golan Heights, West Bank.
70 A.D.
Year in which the Romans destroyed Solomon's temple in Jerusalem.
Diaspora
The dispersion of cultures or people groups (think Jews) throughout the rest of the world.
T.E. Lawrence
British intelligence officer who aided the Bedouin culture groups during WWI; died in a motorcycle accident.
5
How many times does a faithful Muslim pray?
Pilgrimage
A mandatory trip for most faithful Muslims to Mecca at least once during their lifetime.
Ramadan
Holy/sacred month for faithful Muslims; Muslims fast from sunup to sundown over the course of this month.
Yom Kippur
The last of the High Holy Days; an important date for faithful Jews.
444
Number of days American hostages spent in captivity in Tehran following the Iranian Revolution.
President Carter
President who participated in the Camp David Accords.
Hummus
Middle Eastern dish consisting mainly of chick peas (garbanzo beans).
Kurds
Culture group of the Middle East that does not have a nation to call their own (hint: not the Palestinians); they have no friends but the mountains.
Nativism
Extreme hatred or dislike toward immigrants.
Shang
First of the Chinese dynasties.
Great Wall
Also known as the "Wall of 10,000 li."
The Great Firewall
Means by which the Chinese government "protects" its people from being exposed to anti-Chinese sentiments and disallows the undermining of the communist regime.
Confucius
Great Chinese philosopher; emphasized tradition and following strict principles for a successful life.
Lao Tsu
Chinese philosopher who created the concept of Taoism.
Taoism
An attempt to achieve harmony with nature.
Junzi
Confucius' term for perfection; every man is capable of achieving this.
Mandate of Heaven
This strengthened the Chinese emperors and gave them a right to rule.
Geneva Convention
A set of code or guidelines dictating the treatment of prisoners of war.
Bushido
"The way of the warrior."
Hara Kari
Ritual suicide committed by many defeated samurai.
Shogun
Military ruler in Japanese culture; replaced the weak emperors of Japan.
Kamikaze
"Divine wind."
Tang
Golden age of the Chinese dynasties.
One Child Policy
Governmental policy in China attempting to control the growing population.
Ancestor Worship
Religion practiced by many indigenous groups of Africa as well as Southeast Asia.
Hinduism
Most popular belief system found in India and Nepal; believe in karma and reincarnation.
Vaishyas
Merchant caste.
Panchamas
Untouchables.
Shudras
Servant caste.
Ghandi
Creator of active non-violence; worked to abolish the caste system in India.
Kabuki
Name of the type of theater performed in Japanese cultures in which males can play female roles.
Typhoon
Another term for a hurricane.
Tigris and Euphrates
Two important rivers of the Middle East; civilization developed here first in the Middle East.
Yangtze and Yellow
Two important rivers of Southeast Asia; civilization developed here first in Southeast Asia.
Ganges and Indus
Two important rivers of the subcontinent of India; civilization developed here first in India.
Hammurabi
Babylonian king who developed the first law code; evidence of a great civilization.
Pictograph
Symbol that represents an object.
Ideogram
Symbol that represents an idea.
Cuneiform
Wedge-shaped writing first used by the Sumerians of the Middle East.
Hieroglyphics
Form of writing first used by the Egyptian civilization.
Monotheism
Belief in one god.
Polytheism
Belief in multiple gods.
Eleanor Roosevelt
This woman worked with and led the United Nations in developing the Declaration of Human Rights.
Ring of Fire
Large circle encompassing the Pacific Ocean; earthquakes and volcanic activity has a tendency of occurring in these regions.
Internal Locus of Control
Taking responsibility for the successes and failures in your life.
External Locus of Control
Not taking responsibility for the successes and failures in your life.
Assad
Current president of Syria.
Ahmadinejad
Former president of Iran.
Saddam Hussein
Former dictator of Iraq; used chemical weapons on the Kurds.
Vladimir Putin
Current president of Russia.
Archipelago
Group of islands; for example . . . Japan, the Philippines, and Indonesia.