Sir Walter Crofton
Director of Irish Penal system; prisoners released early had low recidivism rates
Elmira Reformatory 1876
Zebulon Brockway; Classification system; Irish system; NY created first Parole authority
A model of corrections based on the assumption that criminal behavior is caused by social, psychological, or biological deficiencies that require treatment.
Unconditional Mandatory release
type of release which inmates serve full portion of their sentence and have no supervision after release from prison
A corrections strategy designed to prepare inmates for a successful return to the community and to reduce their criminal activity after release.
any act committed by a minor that would not be a crime if committed by an adult (e.g., truancy, runaway, or unruly behavior)
a period from 1824 to 1899 when delinquent children were place in homes for training and discipline.
A common law principle that allows the state to assume a parental role and to take custody of a child when he or she becomes delinquent, is abandoned, or is in need of care that the natural parents are unable or unwilling to provide.
Juvenile justice system becomes more punitive and looking more like adult correctional system
children who, although committing no legal offense, may be without a parent or guardian, possibly because the parent is physically or mentally unable to act in that capacity
children who have committed an act that would be considered criminal if committed by an adult
rule of the seven
<7 no capacity 7-14 Presumption of no capacity (not compitent at that age; but with goo argument you can argue) 14-21 has capacity, you are competent
morrissey v. brewer 1972
Supreme court decision that once parole is granted, liberty interest is created and offenders must have certain due process rights to revoke that liberty
In re Gault
Juveniles accused of crimes get same due process rights as adults [timely notification, witness confrontation, right to counsel, etc]
Kent v. United States 1966
The Supreme Court case that decided that the courts must provide the "essentials of due process" in transferring juveniles to the adult system.
Roper v. Simmons 2005
Execution of offenders for crimes committed while under the age of 18 is unconstitutional
Graham v. Florida 2010
Life without parole for minors is unconstitutional unless murder was involved
offenders whose circumstances, conditions, or behaviors require management or treatment outside the normal approach to supervision
Juvenile court judge determines whether offender is waived from the juvenile justice system to adult criminal court
a middle ground between juvenile and adult sentences that allows judges to choose from a broad array of both juvenile and adult sanctions
an approach to managing sex offenders that includes treatment to develop internal control over deviant thoughts, supervision and surveillance to control external behaviors, and polygraph examinations to monitor conformance to treatment plans and supervision conditions.