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Terms in this set (72)
What are carbohydrates also known as?
Name three types of carbohydrates
Glucose, fructose, galactose
Glucose + glucose
Maltose + H20
Glucose + fructose
Sucrose + H2O
Monosaccharide + monosaccharide
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simplest type of sugar.
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
A molecule made by covalently bonding monomers together
Big covalently bonded molecules
What are the four types of macromolecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Do lipids form polymers?
NO - unlike carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleic acids, they do not
Breaking down polymers
cells do this by a process called hydrolysis (water is added to split a bond)
dehydration synthesis reaction Water is removed
Glucose versus fructose
Glucose is shaped like a hexagon and fructose is shaped like a house
repelled by water
Attracted to water
Functions of proteins
Transportation in cell membrane, storage, events, cellular communication, enzymatic activity speeding up reaction
What is a protein?
A biologically functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides it's folded and coiled into a specific structure
What are polypeptides?
Polymers of amino acids
What are rings?
Families of nitrogen bases
How many rings do purines have?
two A G
How many rings do pyrimidines have?
one C T U
What is the monomer of a nucleic acid?
A nucleotide that. Contains a nitrogen base
What does a five carbon sugar and phosphate group do?
Provides instructions for synthesizing proteins and stores genetic information.
What is the structure of DNA
double helix (twisted ladder)
What is DNA is nitrogen bases?
is DNA anti parallel or parallel?
What sugar does DNA have?
What are the nitrogen bases of RNA?
What is the structure of RNA
What sugar does RNA contain?
What does DNA stand for?
What does RNA stand for?
What is a substrate?
What is the active site
Where the substrate bonds
The temperature and pH that the enzyme works the best and is most effective at is called what?
What happens if it is anything off the optimum temperature or PH
Anything past this will cause the denaturing of the protein
A specialized protein that acts as a catalyst speeding up a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy.
What does a catalyst do?
lowers activation energy To speed up a reaction
Enzymes, are they re-usable or not
Enzymes can be reused they are not changed or used up in the process
What is activation energy?
energy needed to start a reaction
All enzymes have an optimal pH they work in, determined by their place of work.
Enzymes have an optimum pH, any pH above or below this will make the enzyme denature, True or false
As temperature increases, and some activity increases until it reaches the optimum temperature and you temperature above this will cause the enzyme activity to decrease happens because the bonds that hold the protein and it's 3-D shape denature
The ability of the enzyme to do its job can be affected by temperature pH cofactors and coenzymes, and inhibitors
Effect cofactors and coenzyme
Help substrate binds to the enzyme, help regulate the enzyme activity in a chemical reaction can be in organic no carbon or organic with Carbon
Decrease enzyme activity can be competitive or noncompetitive
Similar shape as substrate binds to active site stops enzyme from bonding there
Not shaped like substrate does not bind to active site find anywhere but active say it causes the active site to change shapes of the substrate can't bind there
Glycerol +3 fatty acid tails
Uses of triglycerides
Fat energy storage in adipose cells insulation
Curved think at double bond not as compact making a liquid at room temp not completely surrounded by H
Saturated fatty acid tails Shape
Saturated fatty acid tails
Can be compacted
Saturated fatty acid tails at room temp
Carbons have What and are completely surrounded by what
Single bonds and I completely surrounded by hydrogen
Also known as facts they are hydrophobic which equals non-polar or doesn't like water will hydrophilic likes water. A subunit of a lipid is glycerol and fatty acid tails which are made of hydrocarbon And a carboxyl group
What is the subunit of a lipid
Glycerol head and fatty acid tail
What are subtracted to self because it is Polar which creates hydrogen bonds example surface tension
4°C is the densest as water becomes a solid, if becomes less dense causing it to float this happens because the hydrogen bonds for space between the molecules
Evaporative cooling a.k.a. sweating
Maintain internal temp get rid of her Atoms and keep for once hydrogen bonds will form and to reform
Do you attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen in one molecule and a slightly negative electronegative in a different Atom
Give or take electrons do you have a full valence shell of eight electrons a.k.a. attraction of opposite charges
When Adams share give take electrons to have a complete valence shell to be stable share covalent give-and-take Ionic
Covalent bonds are formed between
Between two nonmetals
equal sharing of electrons
having a pair of equal and opposite charges
Polar results in
A polar molecule one side is positive and the other side is negative do you to electronegativity ability to attract electrons from another Atom example water
Water is attracted to a polar charged molecules
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