64 terms

Fleming Chemistry unit 1

Still adding onto this...

Terms in this set (...)

Organic, inorganic, analytical, physical, bio
What are the 5 branches of chemistry?
Observe, purpose, hypothesis, experiment, analyze, conclusion
What are the stages of the Scientific Method?
Rutherford, gold foil
Who discovered the proton, and how?
Thompson, cathode rays
Who discovered the electron, and how?
Chadwick, paraffin wax
Who discovered the neutron, and how?
Greek philosopher that said all matter is made of tiny particles called "atomos" or atoms
Atoms are positive
Discovered electrons, plum pudding model
Discovered the nucleus
Atoms are indestructible, and indivisible. Atoms of the same element are all the same.
You can combine equal amounts of atoms to make compounds.
Atoms are the smallest unit.
Dalton's atomic theory
Solid to gas
Liquid to gas
Gas to liquid
Solid to liquid
Liquid to solid
Gasses consist of tiny particles.
The volume of the molecules is 0.
The particles are in constant, random motion and collide with the walls, causing pressure.
The particles do not attract or repel each other.
The average kinetic energy of gas is directly related to the Kelvin temperature of the gas.
Kinetic Theory of Gases
The higher the temperature, the larger amount of kinetic energy
How does temperature relate to kinetic energy?
273 Kalvin
What is standard temperature
1 atm
What is standard pressure
two or more different molecular forms of the same element in the same physical state, diamonds are an allotrope of carbon
Phase diagram
a graph showing the conditions at which a substance exists as a solid, liquid, or vapor
The five traditional areas of study in chemistry include...
analytical chemistry and physical chemistry
An important characteristic of an accepted scientific theory is that it...
can be changed based on new data
You friend says, "I want to figure out the temperature at which the water boils." To which step of scientific inquiry does this statement belong?
Which of these chemicals is definitely inorganic?
One that is made of nitrogen and oxygen
Identify the false statement.
"Chemistry plays an important role in efforts to increase the world's food supply to protect crops, for a hypothesis to be accepted", "the results of the experiment must support the statement", "A hypothesis is a summary of the results of many experiments"
Who discovered the electron?
The relative charger of an electron, neutron, and proton are, respectively...
-1, 0, and +1
Dalton's atomic theory was an improvement over the ideas of Democritus because it...
was based on experimental evidence
uncertainty principle
it's impossible to know both the exact position and momentum of an electron at the same time
quantum mechanical model
determines the allowed energy an electron can have and how likely it is to find the electrons in various locations around the nucleus
atmoic orbitals
regions of space in which there is a high probability of finding an electron
4 orbital shapes?
1. s (sphere)
2. p (peanut)
3. d (double peanut)
4. f (four peanuts)
quantum number
describe the characteristics of electrons and their orbitals
what are the four numbers?
1. principal quantum number (n)
2. angular momentum quantum number (l)
3. magnetic quantum number (msub1)
4. spin quantum number (msubs)
principal quantum number
the size of the orbital and the specific energy level
angular momentum quantum number
this specifies the shape of the orbital: s,p,d,or f
magnetic quantum number
describes the orientation of the orbitals
spin quantum number
describes the electron either clockwise or counterclockwise
study of the composition of matter and the changes matter undergoes
anything that has mass and volume; takes up space
What are the 5 areas of study in Chemistry?
1. Inorganic
2. Organic
3. Biochemistry
4. Analytical
5. Physical
Inorganic Chemistry
study of chemicals that generally DO NOT contain carbon
Organic Chemistry
study of all chemicals containing C and H
study of the chemistry of living organisms
focuses on composition of matter
Physical Chemistry
physical characteristics of molecules
Scientific Inquiry
1. Observe
2. Purpose
3. Hypothesis
4. Experiment
5. Analyze
6. Conclusion
Qualitative and Quantitative
why you are conducting the experiment
possible explanation
"If..., then... because" statement
test validity of hypothesis and collect date
accept or reject hypothesis
if doesn't match, then propose new hypothesis
well-tested explanation for a set of observations
summarizes results of many observations/ experiements
3 states of matter?
solid, mass, liquid
-definite shape and definite volume
-packed so tightly, particles have very little movement and vibrate
-indefinite shape, but definite volume
-particles move freely, but remain close to each other
-indefinite shape and indefinite volume
-particles move at high speeds and randomly
kinetic energy
energy an object has because of it's motion
atmospheric pressure
pressure due to collisions by air molecules
measures atmospheric pressure
standard temperature pressure