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american government and politics final exam study guide
Terms in this set (72)
A system of government in which power is divided between a national (federal) government and various regional governments.
A system of government whereby the states govern the people directly, while the national government concerns itself with foreign affairs. State and national powers divided into entirely different spheres-a model of federalism that looks on national & state governments as co-equal sovereign powers.
is based on programmatic mixing of authority & programs among the national, state, and local government.
the principle of dividing governmental powers among different branches of government.
separation of powers
a major principle of the American system of government whereby each branch of government can check the actions of the others.
checks and balances
a system of government in which political decisions are made by the people directly, rather than by their elected representation. absolutely everyone votes on everything.
a form of government in which sovereign powers rest with the people, rather than with a king or a monarch. we are a republic.
Under the original constitution, who was to elect the president?
the power of the supreme court or any court to declare unconstitutional federal or state laws & other acts of government.
this power is granted to the national government under the United States Constitution.
this power is not specifically spelled out in the Constitution, but which can deduced from the text. That these powers are permitted to Congress can be seen in the so-called "elastic clause," the final sentences of article 1 section 8 of the Constitution, which say that congress has the right to create laws that are "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers which are specifically stated.
this power is a power shared by the federal and state governments. These powers include the ability to make laws, roads, defense, parks and enforcement for police, prisons, health, and environment, to name a few.
the constitutional provision that makes the constitution & federal laws superior to all conflicting state & local laws. (the constitution is the supreme law of the land)
who is the most powerful person in the U.S. Senate?
who is the most powerful person in the U.S. House?
What are the constitutional requirements to be president?
at least 35 & a natural born citizen
Who was John Marshall & why was he important?
Chief Justice of the United States; his court opinions helped lay the basis for United States constitutional law and made the Supreme Court of the United States a coequal branch of government along with the legislative and executive branches.
who elects members of the House & members of the Senate?
the people elect these members
the process by which people acquire political beliefs & values.
this maybe the old way we use to get information; radio, t.v., newspaper, magazines
this maybe the new way we use to get information; social media, cable, satellite, c-span, digital
the right to vote.
created to make large states happy-2 years is this term-435 members + delegates- debate is limited-many formal rules due to size
house of representatives
created to make small states happy-6 years is a term-100 members-few rules due to size-no limit on debate
an organized group of individuals sharing common objectives who actively attempt to influence policymakers
a group of political activists who organize to win elections, operate the government & determine public policy.
they raise campaign donations-a committee set up by & representing a corporation, labor union, or special interest group.
political action committee (PAC)
the federal governments use of taxation & spending policies to affect overall business activity. government controlling the economy through taxing & spending.
the use of changes in the amount of money in circulation to alter credit markets, employment, & the rate of inflation. government controlling the economy through supply & demand.
the production by government
an economic system categorized by the private ownership of wealth-creating assets, free markets, & freedom of contract. production by the people
what is the significance of conference committees?
job is to reconcile differences in bills coming out of the house and senate
a group of individuals or organizations-which may consists of legislators & legislative staff members, interest group leaders, bureaucrats, scholars, & other experts & media representatives
a three way alliance among legislators in congress, bureaucrats, and interests groups to make or preserve policies that benefit their respective interests.
is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.
What are the steps of public policy making process?
agenda building, policy formulation, policy adoption, policy implantation, policy elevalation
how has the population composition of U.S. changed over the last 50 years?
we have become a more diverse nation
the patterned set of ideas, values, & ways of thinking about government & politics that characterize a person.
primarily refers to the influence and authority of law within society, especially as a constraint upon behavior, including behavior of government officials.
rule of law
inalienable, life, liberty, & the pursuit of happiness
who is John Locke & what was his importance to the founding fathers?
was responsible for saying you need government and social contract.
what body ultimately determines the constitutionality of government action?
The Congress shall have Power ... To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
the necessary & proper clause
a close or narrow reading & interpretation of a stature or written document.
construction of the strict constitution
interpreted by the U.S. constitution as when it was written
interpreted by the U.S. constitution as time evolves
How are U.S. Supreme judges appointed?
nominated by the president & confirmed by the senate
what is a term for a U.S. supreme judge?
generally, all rights rooted in the fourteenth amendments guarantees of equal protection under law. 13th, 14th, & 15th amendments
those personal freedoms, including freedom of religion, & of speech, that are protected for all individuals in a society. bill of rights first 10 amendments
where is the rights to privacy found n the U.S. constitution?
there are no rights to privacy in the U.S. constitution
a judicial policy prohibiting the admission at trail of illegally seized evidence. Mapp v. ohio
is any classification of groups meeting a series of criteria suggesting they are likely the subject of discrimination
what are common types of political participation?
a nations external goals & the technique used to achieve them
a prior decision a court rule leaning on subsequent legal decisions in similar cases. judges rely on this to decide on cases
to let the decision stand. lets you have a more flexible legal system
a situation in which one major political party controls the presidency & the other controls congress or in which one party controls a state govern ship & the other controls the state legislature.
how often does the reapportionment process take place?
every 10 years when the census happens
any voter can vote in either party primary without declaring a party affiliation
only declared members of a party can vote in that party's primary
How are the number of electors determined from each state?
population, number of senators + number of house representatives
What 3 questions should you ask when presented with the results of a public opinion poll?
what was asked? who was asked? what was the margin of error?
a theory that views politics as a conflict among interest groups. political decision making is characterized by bargaining & compromise.
What is the process by which the constitution can be amended?
2/3 congress & 3/4 state legislators
what are five constitutional roles of the president?
head of state, commander in chief, chief diplomat, chief executive, chief legislator
due process rights
It takes home many judges to vote on a case to be heard in the supreme court
a U.S. supreme court procedure by which four justices must vote to grant a petition for review if a case is to come before the full court.
rule of four
an order issued by a higher court to a lower court to send up the record of a case for review.
writ of certiorari
racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administration decisions by public agencies. created by law
racial segregation that occurs because of patterns of racial residence & similar conditions. created by socialization
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