Terms in this set (84)

---Child abuse: more than 3 million cases of child abuse are reported to authorities each year. Most abuse remains unreported. Approximately 1500 children die each year at the hand of a parent (most under 3 years old).
---Types of abuse: Physical abuse. Sexual abuse. Neglect (emotional or physical). Psychological abuse.
-Corporal punishment in US was not outlawed until 1974; still legal in many countries.
--Causes of abuse: Affected by many interacting variables—no one single cause.
---Risk factors:
--Family level: History of abuse in parent's family of origin ( BUT 70% of parents who were abused DO NOT GO ON TO ABUSE THEIR OWN CHILDREN).
-Premature, sick, or temperamentally difficult child
-Unmanageable parental stress (chronic poverty, marital discord, substance abuse, unemployment)
--Community level: Isolation from social support
--Cultural level: Availability of violent images. Acceptance of corporal punishment.
--Effects of abuse: Depends on type of abuse, age and gender of the child, and how information of the abuse is handled.
--Common effects: Lower school achievement. Internalizing problems (anxiety/depression). Externalizing problems (aggression/acting out). Poor peer relationships. Low self-esteem. Inappropriate sexual behavior and promiscuity (in cases of sexual abuse).
---Witnessing Marital Violence
-Children who repeatedly witness marital violence exhibit many of the same symptoms of those children directly abused.
-Lower school achievement. Internalizing and externalizing problems. Poor peer relationships. Difficulty in understanding and expressing appropriate emotion.
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