(1810-1825). Revolutionary ideas travel to spanish and portuguese. Creoles benefitted from plantation society but spanish monarchy was grieved. Creoles had revolution thrust upon them by Napoleon and french rev. inspired by the enlightenment and occasional tax revolt, they sought to replace the peninsulares to take advantage. Limited by little self-govetnment and division in society w/class separation, so leaders appeal to lower class in terms of nationalism- but it is impossible to unite the colonies (too distant, too different). Mexico in turmoil breaks into independent states, but create the central american federation (1823-1938: honduras, nicaragua, and salvador). Brazilian Independence: 1807 Napoleon invades spain and portugal, royal court fled to Rio de Javiero; creoles in Brazil clamor to be free, King's son is the regent there (Pedro). He grants the creoles freedom and claims to be their emperor (1822-34). Brazil achieves independence as a monarchy not a a republic, still the creole elite dominate society while military authority is given to local radicals (caudillaus- those who agree with the creole elite). The new brazillian state permits slavery, confirms the wealth and authority of Roman Catholic Church. was an early and influential women's rights convention, the first to be organized by women in the Western world, in Seneca Falls, New York. It spanned two days: 19 July 1848 and 20 July 1848. New York women, upon the occasion of a visit by Philadelphia-based Lucretia Mott, a Quaker famous for her oratorical ability, planned the event. Mott's oratorical ability was rare for this era during which women were often not allowed to speak in public. Female Quakers local to the area organized the meeting along with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a skeptical non-Quaker.
The meeting had six sessions, included a lecture on law, a humorous presentation, and multiple discussions about the role of women in society. Stanton and the Quaker women presented two prepared documents, the Declaration of Sentiments and an accompanying list of resolutions, to be debated and modified before being put forward for signatures. A heated debate sprang up regarding women's right to vote, with many including Mott urging the removal of this concept, but Frederick Douglass argued eloquently for its inclusion, and the suffrage resolution was retained. Exactly 100 of approximately 300 attendees signed the document, mostly women.
Increase in technological innovation led to increased outputs. Industrialization was the process that transformed agrarian and handcrafted-centered economics into economics distinguished by industry and machine manufacture. Positive aspects: 1) agricultural productivity 2) population growth 3) specialized labor 4) rivers, canals, transportation improved. Marked by advancement in banking and financial institutions. Negative aspects: 1) deforestation 2) soil depletion 3) class segregation. Early spread began in western europe, the french revolution set the stage, earliest continental center of industrial production is belgium (coal, iron, textiles, glass). Patterns for european internal development favored innovation and rulers had an alliance with the merchant class, but other areas of the world advanced too. Europe was at the center of a major exchange network- contact with culturally different people that encouraged change, colonies supplied products. In britain, colonies provided sugar and cotton from brazil, US, and the caribbean (none of these were grown in europe). Cotton kept the emerging textile industry going, money drives commerce, industrial workers had few options. British commerce was worldwide, politics encouraged commerce. Britain was not devastated by the wars that were going on in europe at the same time. In North America, both labor and investment capital came from europe, steel industry in Alabama and pennsylvania huge. Continuing spread of industrialization, after 1870, russia embarked on campaigns for industrial revolution, absolute monarch- greatest state control of anywhere in western world- head of everything (state, govt.) no rational parliament, no elections or political parties. Till 1861, most of russians were serfs. The state, not society instituted change: Peter the Great (r. 1689-1725) and Catherine the Great (r. 1762-1796). 1861 state frees serfs. Industrialization was launched in 1890 with the focus on railroads, and heavy industry found in few major cities, with few factories. Tsar encouraged the construction of railroads to link distant regions and aid the empire. In 1917, revolution started. Brought most radical socialist groups to power- the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin. Civil war between Tokugawa and emperor supporters. 1868, child made emperor Mutsuhito. With his power came swift reforms, attack on the social order, create national unity, all men are equal, attack the power and privileges of the daimyo and samurai, dismantled confucian based social order, samurai and daimyo honors revoked. widespread interest in the west, mejii govt. sent money to official and students to the west to learn, work and translate. And in turn, selectively borrowed from the west. 1889, formal constitution given by emperor, constitutional monarchy with a legislative (diet) composed of a house of nobles and an elected lower house (usually wealthy). People were not really given the opportunity to vote, parliament is not allowed to check the emperor. Govt. provided greater opposition for debate in japanese society. They established the telegraph, railroad, and steamship lines, tied local and regional markets to national network economy; they abolished guild restrictions and internal tariffs. Zaibatsu system took over japanese economy and invested more money in various spheres. Peasants supplied much of the domestic capital that supported industrialization, heavily taxed, so they revolt. Govt. did little to alleviate plight, the countryside suffered starvation, daughters were sold, infanticide was common, and famine absolute. Britain sought alternatives to Bullion (silver bars) to exchange for chinese goods; british east india company exchange with the chinese silver coins, flow back to britain, use to buy chinese products. Opium trade expanded rapidly, at first chinese authorities were inefficient in enforcing the law, then they recognized the dangers of opium and acted. 1836, try to stop opium trade, Lin Zexu, failed. Sparked war when commission destroyed 20,000 chests of opium. War (1839-1842) outraged by the actions of china, british commercial agents pressed the govt. into military retaliation, but neither persuaded to peace. May 1842, british armada on Yangzi river encounter little resistance and the chinese governor is forced to settle for peace. After attacks by France and Japan, China agrees to the Unequal Treaties: treaties that curtail Chinese sovereignty, eventually british force china to accept free trade and "proper" relations amongst countries. Second Opium was (1856-58) europeans vandalized imperial summer palace, more treaty ports are open to foreigners, china is now open to foreign missions. Qing dynasty is left weak when it needed to be strong for modernization- inhibited china's industrial revolution, also weakened by rebellion's increasing poverty and peasant's inner turmoil. 2nd wave of colonization is characterized by imperialism. Domination from trade, investment in business and activities that enable imperial powers to profit from affairs, colonialism refers to to political, social, economic, and cultural structures that enabled imperial powers to dominate subject lands, not just sending colonists to settle new lands. Infers controlling domestic and foreign colonies and introducing european business techniques; transforms the educational system to fit european standards (many euros came to believe that imperial expansion and colonization were crucial to survival of state and societies and personal fortune. motives: colonies provided reliable sources of raw materials not available in europe (rubber, copper, tin, petroleum) most manufactured goods did not flow back to africa, but once raw material sent out they stayed out (no benefit to africa). Rubber and tin were vital products in the industrial age, rubber trees were indigenous to amazon river basin, but imperialists established colonies along the congo river basin and malaya. 19th cent US provided petroleum, oil field in S.E. Asia attracts. Political motives: even if colonies were not economically beneficial, imperialists held them, it was crucial for political and military reasons to maintain them. european officials seek to inspire patriotism by focusing attention on foreign imperialist adventures- attractive alternative to civil war. Cultural justification: missionaries flock to africa and asia in search of converts to christianity, often opposed imperialist ventures and defended interests of their converts against european entrepreneurs and colonial officials. Spiritual campaigns provide strong religious reason to conquer, missionaries were the link between natives and european officials. Tools of conquest were technological advancements: railroads, steamships, weapons (rifles, gunboats, machine guns). served as the President of Mexico from 1940 to 1946. Domestically, Ávila protected the working class, creating social security in 1943 and working to reduce illiteracy. He continued land reform and declared a rent freeze to benefit low-income citizens. He also promoted election reform, creating new requirements that made it impossible for communists to run. During his term, Ávila faced the difficulty of governing during World War II. After two of Mexico's ships (Potrero del Llano and Faja de Oro) carrying oil were destroyed by German submarines in the Gulf of Mexico, Ávila declared war against the Axis powers on May 22, 1942. 15,000 Mexican soldiers fought in the war on a variety of fronts. Mexican participation in World War II was mainly limited to an Airborne squadron, the 201st (Escuadrón 201), to fight the Japanese in the Pacific. This squadron consisted of 300 men and after receiving training in Texas, was sent to the Philippines on March 27, 1945. On June 7, 1945 its missions started. By the end of the war, 5 Mexican soldiers had lost their lives in combat. But with its short participation in the war, Mexico belonged to the victorious nations and had thus gained the right to participate in the post-war international conferences. (1869-1948) Born in western india to pious hindu family, studied law in england, experienced overt racism in south africa, began to organize indians, mostly muslims, to protest country's policies of racial segregation. His "satyagraha" or "truth force" was confrontational, nonviolent political philosophy to bring change. Became Mahatma, "great soul" believed india was brought down by modern civilization, its competitiveness, warlike tendencies, materialism, and abandonment of religion.